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הקדמה ספר התוספתא, אחד מעמודי התוך של תורת התנאים, נדפס בראשונה בסוף האלפס י דפוס ויניציאה רפ״א. ובסוף סדר זרעים כתב הגאון המגיה: ״הגם כי יש ויש טעיות לרוב בתוספתא, ורוב הנראה לעינים הוא, לא מלאני לבי לתקנו מעצמי, והעתק טוב ומדוייק איננ ו במציאות אתנו, והנחתי מקום להתגדר בו לכל בר בי רב כפי שכלו והגהתו. אכן לרוב תועלת וחדוש הספר אמרנו להדפיסו. כה דברי הקטן שבתלמידי׳ המתנצל בפני רבותיו , חיא מאיר בכהר״ר דוד זצ״ל״.! כל הדפוסים שבאו אחריו ) חוץ מהוצאת צוקרמנדל וגרוריה ( עיקרם בדפוס ויניציאח הראשון, אלא שנתוספו בהם שיבושים משלהם, ותיקונים נכונים שתיקנ ו חכמים ומפרשים, אבל בלי יסוד בנוסחאות כתב יד. בשנות תר״כ— תרל״ג הדפיסו בש״ם ווינה את התוספתא ) בסוף כל מסכת של הבבלי( וצרפו לה שינויי נוסחאות מכ״י ווינה. וכן כתבו המדפיסים בסדר זרעים, צ״ד ע״א: ״פה ערכנ ו לעין הקורא כל שנויי גרסאות שמצאנו בתוספתא כתיבת יד על קלף ישן נושן אשר באוצר הספרים לאדונינו הקיסר יר״ה, וקראנו אותן בשם אור הגנוז״. הדבור ״כל שנויי גרסאות, ׳ היא מליצה בעלמא, ולא העתיקו אלא מעט מזעיר, וכל מה שהתקדמו בהדפסה נתמעטו שינוי י הנוסחאות, עד שממסכת טהרות ואילך אין שם שינויי נוסחאות כלל. 2 וזכור לטוב הר׳׳ר משה שמואל צוקרמנדל שהוציא לאור את כל התוספתא בספר מיוחד) פאזעוואלק תרל״ט— תרמ׳׳א(, והדפיס מתחילת התוספתא עד זבחים ) והיא המסכת הראשונה בסדר קדשים בכי״ע ובכי״ו( פ״ה ה׳׳ה ע״פ כ״י ערפורט, ומשם ואילך הנוסח הוא ) לפ י דבריו( מכ״י ווינה. הוא צרף להוצאה שלו שנויים מכ׳׳י ווינה ) מתחילת התוספתא עד זבחים פ׳׳ה ה״ה( ומן התוספתא שבדפוס. אבל כבר הראינו בהקדמה לתוספת ראשונים ח׳׳ב עמ׳ 4 שאין דבריו מדוייקים: מזבחים פ״ה ה״ו הנוסח שלו מתאים בעיקרו לתוספתא הוצ׳ ראם, והשינויי ם שבאור הגנוז. שינויי הנוסחאות שלו מכ׳׳י ווינה לשאר הסדרים אינם מדוייקים כלל וכלל , ותוספתא דפוס ראשון לא ראה מימיו, כעדות עצמו בהקדמתו עמ׳ 6 הערה 1 . עכשי ו כשבא לפנינו כי׳׳ע ראינו שאף בהעתקתו מכ׳׳י זה לא דייק במיוחד, ובנוסח שלו מכי׳׳ ע צריך להשתמש בזהירות, כפי שיווכח הלומד מתוך ההשוואה של הצילום מכי׳׳ע ) שצרפנו( עם הוצאת צוקרמנדל. ברם עלינו לא לשכוח שבזמן ההוא עדיין לא היו רגילים לצלם כתבי יד, והחכם צוקרמנדל הדפיס חלק מן התוספתא ) עד דמאי בהוצאה שלו( ע׳׳פ שינויי הנוסחאות שהעתיק לעצמו מכ״י ערפורט, ומדמאי ואילך ע״פ העתקה מכ״י, ולא מכ״י עצמו. ולא עוד אלא שהחכם ! מתוך התנצלותו של ה ר ב ניכר שהוא פ ק פ ק אם כדאי ב כ ל ל ל ה ד פי ס את התו ספ תא מתו ך הנוסח המשובש. ה ר ב היה א ח ד מגדולי התורה מ מנו, עיין מ״ש עליו רנ״נ רבינוביץ ב, מ א מר על ה ד פ ס ת התלמוד, עמי 33 , ה ערה מ״א והערה מ״ב. 2 בשנת תר־ ז ה ד פי ס ר״י גאלדענטהאל ) בהקדמה ל ס׳ המפ תח לר״ן שהוציא לאור, ח׳ ע א ואילך( מכ׳יי ווינה שלנו את סוף מ ס כ ת נגעים וראש מס׳ פ ר ה החס רי ם ב ד פו סי ם. שינויי נוסחאות מכ״י ווינה ל מס׳ ב* ב נתפרסמו ע״י צוקר מנדל ב מ כ ת ב חרשי הגרמני חמ’ ג ) 1899 (, עמ׳ 291 ואילך. וכן נתפרסמ ו שם בחמ״ה ) 1901 (, עמי 21 ואילך, שנו״ס ל כ ל ס ד ר טהרות ע״י קרענגיל. ועיין גם ב תו ס פ ת ראשוני ם ח״ב, עמי 299 ואילך. ז

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1. Zera'im, Berakot-BikkurimCopyright2. Zera'im, Berakot-Terumot 3. Zera'im, Shevi'it-Bikkurim4. Mo'ed, Shabbat-Shekalim5. Mo'ed, Part III, Shabbat-Eruvin6. Mo'ed, Part IV, Pesakhim-Sukkah7. Mo'ed, Part V, Betza-Hagiga8. Nashim, Yevamot-Kiddushin9. Nashim, Yevamot-Ketubot-Nedarim-Nezirot10. Nashim, Sota-Gittin-Kiddushin11. Nezikin, Bava Kamma-Bava Mezi'a-Bava Batra12. Nezikin, Bava Kamma-Bava Mezi'a-Bava Batra
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