Three Jewish Communities in Medieval...

The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Introduction jurisdiction in the Justicia, in all  litigation, whether civil or criminal, between Jews and Christians. 5Private  disputes came under the juris­diction of the Baile, who was the direct representative of the Crown, 6 and the first hearings  of a suit came before the Jews own dayyanim of the aljama. 7 Jews could hold certain public offices, 8 at  times including posts with authority and jurisdiction over the Christian population. However, 5 F. Roca Traver, El Justicia de Valencia, 1238- 1321, Valencia 1970. This is the authors doctoral thesis on the institutions of the Kingdom of Valencia. It offers ample documentation and is annotated, illustrated and contains a bibliography. It does not contain indexes, and the references to the sources of the Archivo del Justicia de Valencia ( Archivo del Reino de Valencia) are now antiquated and tiresome to use. ( Hereafter: Justicia). J. R. Magdalena Nom de Déu, Judios y cristianos ante la  Cort del Justicia de Castellon, Castellon de la Plana, 1988. Furs: Llibre I, Rubrica III, specifically fur LXVIII of Pedro IV, 1347:  Quant als juheus, cert és per fur que si és qüestio de christià a juheu, aixi en civil com encriminal, és  la jurisidccio del Justicia de Valencia e en acô no ha haut contrast jamés. 6 The authoritative  work on this institution is the Estudio documental sobre el Bayie General de Valencia, su autoridad y jurisdiccion by L. Piles Ros, Valencia 1970, and in particular the section on the Jews, Judios, pp. 48- 53. Furs: ibidem  Mas com és qüestio entre juheus, axi en civil com en criminal, tots temps, ans del furs antichs e après, fonch la jursidiccio ordinària de loffici de la batlia, e en aço jamés no hac contrast. E aço matex determena lo fur qui és: en cert cas dona  la jurisdiccio dels juheus al justicia de Valencia, e en tots altres al dit batle. 7 Furs, Llibre III, Rubrica V, fur XLVII of Jaime I:  Juheus, sobre  totes questions e demandes civils o criminals les quals hauran ab christians, responen e prenen dret en poder de la Cort de la ciutat, no contrastant alcun privilegi a ells feit ni a fer, mas si los juheus entréls matexs hauran pleit, quen conegue lo lur jutge. ( The underlining is ours). A note by the editors of the Furs de Valencia ( Barcelona 1978, vol. III, pp. 97- 98) points out as a strange fact that the Jews had their own judges and magistrates courts, whereas it is well known that the Rabbinical courts and their judges or dayyanim functioned in Spain with a fair degree of autonomy. See n° 6:  lo lur jutge: segons el fur I- III- 62... les questions entre jueus foren sempre, abans dels furs antics, i després, de la jurisdiccio del batlle. El fet, empero, que L parli de  eorum iudices i el text vulgar de  lo lur jutge sembla indicar que originàriament els jueus tenien jutges propis. In 1339, the Jews Mosse Assenyo, from Onda, and Davit Barbo, from Villarreal, present a litigation before Rabbi Abraam Abenmo-raiez, of Valencia, who is to  pass judgment according to Jewish Law. ACA Reg. 600, f. 197 v; Baer, 286. 8 From Amador ( p. 225, n. 1),  we learn that the Baile General of the Kingdom of Valencia at the time of the prescription of the first furs was Rabbi Jehudah, a favourite of King Jaime I. We also have examples in La Plana of Castellon of Jews exercising the functions of Baile and collectors of taxes and rents from bailias: suffice it to mention Salomon Vidal. Another important figure was the Jew of Tortosa Astruc Jacob Xixo, who was baile of Burriana, then administrator of the Peñiscola salt tax, baile of Morella, Tortosa and Peñiscola, money- lender of Jaime 12 Chapter Home  | TOC 8  | Index 8 t t t

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8


About Book Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8

Front Matter Front Flap Half Title Page Editorial BoardTitle Page CopyrightDedication Table of Contents PREFACE ABBREVIATIONSINTRODUCTIONGEOGRAPHICAL, CHRONOLOGICAL AND DOCUMENTARYLIMITSSOURCESPublished documents and RegestaUnpublished DocumentsCritical BibliographyMETHODOLOGYContents PART I - THE JEWISH ALJAMA OF CASTELLON1. HISTORICAL SURVEYTHE MUSLIM ERATHE RECONQUISTA AND THE REPOPULATION OF CASTELLONTHE LORD'S DOMAIN OF CASTELLON AND THE JEWSCASTELLON, ROYAL TOWN: THE JEWSTHE RIOTS OF 1391: CONVERSOSJEWS IN CASTELLON IN THE EARLY 15TH CENTURYTHE TRASTAMARA DYNASTY IN THE KINGDOM OF ARAGON: FERNANDO I AND THE JEWSALFONSO V AND THE REORGANIZATION OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITYPROBLEMS OF SUPPLY: KASHER MEATSTONING OF THE JEWS DURING HOLY WEEKOTHER INTERVENTIONS OF THE BAILE GENERALTHE EXPULSION OF THE JEWS IN 14922. THE JEWISH COMMUNITY: ITS DEMOGRAPHY, ECONOMY AND INSTITUTIONSDEMOGRAPHYJEWISH FAMILIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPSPROPERTYTown PropertyCountry PropertyTypes of LandsJewish Rural PropertyTAXESJEWISH LESSEES OF THE IGLESIA MAJOR AND THE OBRA PIA D'EN LORENÇ MARTORELLPROFESSIONS AND TRADESJEWISH MONEYLENDERS AND BROKERSOATHS OF JEWISH MONEYLENDERS AND BROKERSTHE JEWISH QUARTERThe QuarterThe SynagoguesThe CemeteryThe Butcher's ShopDOCUMENTS1 Castellon, 13392 Castellon, 13393 Catellon, 12 December 13394 19 November 13415 20 May 13646 28 May 13647 12 August 13648 14 August 13649 1364/65 Payment of interests to Içach Avinaçara. 10 1364/65 Journeys to Castellon to obtain a postponement on a loan. 11 1364/65 Payment of interests to Izac Avinaçara.12 1366/67 Na (A)Bella, Jewess of Castellon, loans 80 florins to the municipality of Villarreal.13 1366/67 Davino, Jew of Castellon, obtains money for the municipality of Villarreal.14 1366/67 Payment of the Castellon Jew Salamo Lobell, for his brokerage, for obtaining a loan of 3,000 ss. for the municipality of Villarreal.15 1371List of the Jews of the Castellon aljama, with their properties and peita.16 Castellon, February 138317 4 May 138718 Barcelona, 12 August 139019 Barcelona, 19 August 139020 Saragossa, 16 January 139121 Castellon, 14 July 139122 Castellon, 18 July 139123 Castellon, 19 July 139124 Castellon, 20 July 139125 Castellon, 26 July 139126 Castellon, 28 July 139127 Castellon, 31 July 139128 Castellon, 4 August 139129 5 January 139330 Saragossa, 9 February 140031 Maella, 29 July 140432 11 October 141633 18 July 141734 19 October 142135 23 June 142336 9 June 142737 10 June 142738 17 June 142739 22 June 142740 25 July 142741 6 July 142942 1429-1497 List of the censos paid by the Jews of Castellon to the Obra Pia d'en Lorenç Martorell.43 27 June 143044 26 January 143245 1432 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon and their purchases and sales.46 143(3?) List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon, with their property and peita.47 1449/50 With relation to certain brokerages, the Jew Astruch convokes the Sindic of Villarreal to appear before the Cort of the Governor of Castellon.48 1449/50 The same affair as in the previous document.49 15 May 145050 1450 Payments of costs to a Jurat of Villarreal for travelling to Castellon in order to reach an agreement with Astruch.51 23 August 145152 20 November 145153 1455 — 1459 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon and their purchases and sales.54 28 September 146055 1460/61 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon and their purchases and sales.56 26 December 146157 1462 List of the aljama of Castellon, with tehir goods and peita.58 14 October 146859 14 October 146860 1468 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon, with their property and peita.61 1469-1471 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon, and their purchases and sales.62 24 December 147063 15 December 147164 30 May 147265 20 May 147366 3 July 147367 19 July 147368 1473 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon, with their property and peita.69 9 February 147670 22 May 147671 29 June 147772 1479 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon with their property and peita.73 1480-1484 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon with their purchases and sales.74 1485 List of the Jews of the aljama of Castellon with their property and peita.75 6 July 148876 23 February 149077 1490 The Maestre Racional, as censal of the butcher's shop of the Jewish aljama of Castellon de la Plana, receives the sum of 9 dineros.78 Castellon, 149279 8 May 149280 6 June 149281 1 July 149282 19 July 149283 27 July 149284 1492 The tax of 9 diners ground rent to which the butcher's shop of the Jews of Castellon was subject, is no longer paid.85 1492 The ground rent of 2 diners to which the Scola Vella of the Castellon aljama was subject is no longer paid. It is considered derelict.86 1492 The butcher's shop of the Jews of Castellon is considered derelict, since the 8 sous of ground rent formerly paid by the Jewish dyer are no longer collected.PART II - THE JEWISH ALJAMA OF BURRIANA1. THE LEGAL POSITION OF THEJEWS IN BURRIANATHE STATUS OF THE JEWSTHE 1391 MASSACRES AND THEIR AFTERMATH2. THE ALJAMA AND THE JUDERIATHE ALJAMA AND ITS OFFICERSPHYSICIANSRELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONSTHE JUDERIAA DEMOGRAPHIC OUTLINE3. THE JEWS, THE AUTHORITIES AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIESJEWS FROM BURRIANA BEFORE THE BAILE'S TRIBUNALJEWS IN THE CORT DEL JUSTICIADOCUMENTS1 Barcelona, 24 July 13262 Barcelona, 19 November 13263 Burriana, 31 August 1333 (?)4 Burriana, 1333 (?)5 Burriana, 1333 (?)6 Burriana, 8 January 1334 (?)7 Burriana, 6 March 13348 Burriana, 31 May 1334 (?)9 Burriana, 18 December 133510 Castellon, 4 March and Barcelona 24 July 133611 Burriana, 15 October 133612 Burriana, 2 February 133713 Burriana, 7 May 133714 Burriana, 26 November 133715 Burriana, 22 December 133716 Burriana, 3 February 133817 Burriana, May 133818 Burriana, 10 June 133819 Burriana, 28 February 133920 Burriana, 7 March 133921 Burriana, 17 March 133922 Burriana, 27 March 133923 Burriana, 19 August 1339 (5 May and 3 November 1340)24 Burriana, 1 October 133925 Burriana, 17 January 134026 Burriana, 29 January 134027 Burriana, 30 January 134028 Burriana, 5 February 134029 Burriana, 28 March 134030 Burriana, 7 April 134031 Burriana, 2 August 134032 Burriana, 19 October 1340 (and 23 April 1342)33 Burriana, 16 November 134034 Burriana, 17 November 134035 Burriana, 15 March 134136 Burriana, 21 March 134137 Burriana, 17 July 134138 Burriana, 2 August 134139 Burriana, 14 August 1341 (and 13 November 1341)40 Burriana, 7 October 134141 Burriana, 19 November 134142 Burriana, 20 November 134143 Burriana, 22 December 134144 Burriana, 15 January 134245 Burriana, 4 February 134246 Burriana, 9 February 1342 (?)47 Burriana, 3 July 134248 Burriana, 13 August 134249 Burriana, 31 March 134350 Burriana, 16 December 134351 Burriana, 16 December, 134352 Villarreal, 1369/7053 Castellon, 29 June 138954 ??nzon, 8 November 138955 Valencia, 22 July 139156 Sant Cugat, 1 October 139257 Valencia, 15 January 139358 Zaragoza, 25 July 139959 Zaragoza, 26 July 133960 Zaragoza, 3 February 140061 Valencia, 5 July 140162 Segorbe, 26 July 140163 Castellon, 20 October 141764 Castellon, 12 February 142265 Castellon, 13 February 142266 Castellon, 2 March 142267 Castellon, 23 March 142268 Castellon, 24 March 142269 Castellon, 18 May 142270 Castellon, 17 August 142271 Castellon, 27 September 142272 Castellon, 13 October 142273 Castellon, 19 October 142274 Castellon, 2 November 142275 Castellon, 23 December 142276 Castellon, 14 July 142377 Castellon, 14 July 142378 Castellon, 14 July 142379 Valencia, 20 December 1423 and 11 April 142480 Castellon, 22 December 142381 Valencia, 24 May 142482 Valencia, 3 July 142483 Valencia, 27 and 30 October 142484 Valencia, 15 November 142485 Valencia, 13 March 142586 Valencia, 30 May 142587 Castellon, 4 June 142588 Valencia, 22 August 142589 Valencia, 4 May 1427 (14 May 1427)90 Villarreal, 14 May 142791 Valencia, 3 November 142992 Valencia, 26 April 143093 Valencia, 17 August 143094 Valencia, 24 April 143195 Burriana, 24 January 147496 Burriana, 24 January 147497 Castellon, 16 August 147598 Castellon, 4 November 147899 Castellon, 4 August 1480100 Burriana, 12 October 1480PART III - THE JEWISH ALJAMA OF VILLARREAL1. HISTORICAL EVOLUTIONVILLARREAL: GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONTHE FOUNDATION OF VILLARREALTHE FIRST JEWS IN VILLARREALSALOMON VIDAL, JEWISH BAILE OF PEDRO IIIPRIVILEGES OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITYTHE 1391 RIOTS AND THEIR ECHO IN VILLARREALPREACHING BY CONVERTSTHE EXPULSIONTHE JEWS IN LOCAL TOPONYMYPOSITION OF THE JEWISH QUARTER2. THE AUTHORITIES AND THE JEWSTHE JEWS IN THE MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES OF VILLARREALTHE BAILE AND THE JEWSTHE JUSTICIA AND THE JEWS: LAWSUITS1416, Lawsuit: Berenguer Tomas versus Yçach Agii and na Ceti, his wife1422, Lawsuit: Lorenç Miquel versus Johan Boix and Salamo Çaçon1423, Lawsuit: Lorenç Miquel versus Pasqual Fornero and Salamo (Aben) Çaçon1423, Lawsuit: na Maciana, widow, versus Salamo Çaçon and na Donna, his wife1469, Lawsuit: Mossé Israel versus Arnau TenerOther litigations3. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATIONAPPROXIMATE DEMOGRAPHICAL DETAILSPROPERTIESTAXESPROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONSMONEYLENDINGCOMMERCESale of FoodstuffsSale of Construction MaterialsSale of ClothJEWISH BOLLA TAX FARMERSDOCUMENTS1 Molinos, 24 May 13352 Molinos, 24 May 13353 Villarreal, 14 December 13484 1355 Among the different revenues from Villarreal figures the peita of the Jews, paid to the Infantas: 190 Barcelona ss.5 Villarreal, 13666 Villarreal, 13667 Villarreal, 19 April 13698 Villarreal, 21 May 13769 Villarreal, 12 May 137810 Villarreal, 138011 Villarreal, 1383/8412 Valencia, 139213 Villarreal, 1397/9814 Villarreal, December 1406 or January 140715 Villarreal, 141316 Villarreal, 1414/1517 Villarreal, 20 October 141618 Castellon, 3 November 141619 Castellon, 17 November 141620 Villarreal, 141821 Villarreal, 10 May 142122 Villarreal, 1421/142223 Castellon, 10 November 142224 Castellon, 8 March 142325 Castellon, 10 May 142326 Villarreal, 11 May 142327 Castellon, 26 May 142328 Villarreal, 27 May 142329 Castellon, 9 June 142330 Castellon, 10 June 142331 Castellon, 10 June 142332 Villarreal, 10 June 1423 (Castellon, 21 June)33 Castellon, 21 June 142334 Villarreal, 26 June 142335 Villarreal, 14 July 142336 Castellon, 14 July 142337 Castellon, 16 July 142338 Villarreal, 18 January 142539 Villarreal, 24 June 142640 Villarreal, 16 February 144041 Villarreal, 145142 Villarreal, 1453/5443 Villarreal, 145544 Villarreal, 1459/6045 Villarreal, 13 July 146246 Villarreal, 146447 Villarreal, 25 March 1465 48 Villarreal, 10 October to 15 December 146649 Villarreal, 17 November 146650 Villarreal, 146751 Castellon, 15 June 146752 Villarreal, 9 December 146753 Villarreal, 25 February 146854 Villarreal, 12 February 146955 Villarreal, 3 October 146956 Villarreal, 147057 Villarreal, 147158 Villarreal, 147259 Villarreal, 147460 Castellon, 5 July 147561 Castellon, 17 January 147762 Villarreal, 23 February 147763 Villarreal, 10 May 147764 Villarreal, 3 July 147765 Villarreal, 8 November 147766 Valencia, 12 December 147767 Valencia, 12 December 147768 Villarreal, 25 January 147869 Villarreal, 8 August 148070 Villarreal, 148271 Villarreal, 30 July 148272 Villarreal, 30 July 148273 Villarreal, 148374 Villarreal, 21 April 149075 Villarreal, 1492Back Matter GLOSSARYINDICESSUBJECTSPERSONSPLACESBack Flap
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