The Sephardi Legacy II Page 17...

14 НАШ BEINARTmemorandum  to the Queen, requesting her to issue orders that it be put intoeffect. 11 However,  the Crown was obliged to exempt a number of Jews in the royal entourage from wearing the badge, and granted the request made by the Senior family and Jewish tax collectors who travelled the highways in order to protect them in the fulfillment of their functions. The attitude of the realm to this order, whatever its considerations as to who should be exempted from wearing the badge, created a privileged class, a sign of discrimination which demonstrated that the good of the realm was the decisive factor, even if it stood in opposition to the demands of the Church in its desire for external segregation between Jews and Christians, the humiliation of the Jews and their exposure to attack by Christians. Another step in the pacification of the realm was Ferdinand and Isabellas journey to Andalusia. There can be no doubt that this was planned down to the last detail. When they reached Seville in 1477, a friar by the name of Alonso de Hojeda appeared before them and complained about the state of the faith and the heresy that had spread throughout the town and indeed throughout all of Andalusia. The Conversos were openly accused of judaizing and the Jewish public was charged with guiding and helping them to return to their Jewish way of life. The sovereigns granted the request made by the friar and his group of supporters without any form of procrastination and dispatched an emissary to Pope Sixtus IV with a request to authorize them to establish a National Inquisition court in Seville for the region and the realm, in order to conduct an investigation into heresy. This mission constituted an opening for compromise between the Crown and the Holy See. On 1 November 1478, the sovereigns request was granted and papal goodwill was once again extended to Castile: Alfonso de Aragon,  illegitimate son of Ferdinand, was appointed archbishop of Saragossa. 12  In December 1478, Sixtus withdrew the permission granted for the marriage of Juana to Afonso V, her uncle, King of Portugal. The way was paved for the foundation of the Spanish National Inquisition as it was conceived by Alonso de Espina, the father of the idea. The ordering of religious life, as perceived by the Catholic Monarchs and Spanish clergy, thus constituted an additional step in uniting the people for the creation of a national state. The significance of the Inquisition should not be confined solely to the religious sphere: religion and adherence to the faith constituted the medium for the recognition of the regimes supremacy and fealty to it and all of its objectives. 13 Moreover, no separation was made between the limits of religious unity on the one hand and those of political and state unity on the other. It should be stressed that at that stage it was the Conversos judaizing heresy which appeared to require drastic steps as an existing reality that had to be extirpated; the connection between the 11 See H. Beinart,  The Memorandum of Thomas de Torquemada to Queen Isabella, in The Sixth World Congress of Jewish Studies, vol. 2 ( Jerusalem: 1976), pp. 3- 26 ( Hebrew). 12 Isabella did not  wish him to be appointed archbishop of Toledo, the most important archbishopric in Spain. See T. Azcona, OFM, Cap., La eleccion у reforma del episcopado espanol en tiempo de los Reyes Catolicos ( Madrid: 1960),  pp. 57, 202, 209ff. 13 Elliott defined this very well in Imperial Spain, p. 97.   Chapter Home  | TOC t t t

The Sephardi Legacy II


About Book The Sephardi Legacy II

Front Matter Map Half Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Table of Contents Foreword List of AbbreviationsContent Haim Beinart - The Expulsion from Spain: Causes and ResultsHaim Beinart - The Conversos in Spain and Portugalin the 16th to 18th CenturiesJacob Barnai - The Jews of Spain in North AfricaJacob Barnai - The Jews of Spain in EgyptAvraham David - The Spanish Exiles in the Holy LandAliyot from Spain Prior to the ExpulsionThe Aliyah of the Exiles after 1492The Spanish Exiles in the Holy Land at the beginning of Ottoman RuleJerusalemThe Sephardim in the Holy Land at the End of the 16th and the 17th CenturiesSafedThe Conversos in the Holy LandJoseph Hacker - The Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th CenturyImmigration to the Ottoman Empire and the Establishment of Sephardi CommunitiesAutonomous Jewish OrganizationThe Image of Jewish SocietyJacob Barnai - The Jews of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th and 18th CenturiesDemographic ChangesLegal, Social and Economic Status1. Tax Farming2. Purveyors to the Authorities3. The Textile Industry4. International and Internal Trade5. GuildsSociety, Leadership and Cultural CreativityThe Settlement (Yishuv) in the Holy LandMoshe Idel - Spanish Kabbalah after the ExpulsionSpanish Kabbalah and the ExpulsionTrajectories and CentersThe European TrajectoryKabbalah in the Land of IsraelR.J. Zwi Werblowsky - R. Joseph Caro, Solomon Molcho, Don Joseph NasiIsrael M. Ta-Shma - Rabbi Joseph Caro and His Beit Yosef: Between Spain and GermanyR.J. Zwi Werblowsky - Shabbetai ZeviRobert Bonfil - The History of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in ItalyIn the Wake of the ExilesLevantines and ConversosContinuation and ChangeYosef Kaplan - The Sephardim in North-Western Europe and the New WorldThe Establishment of the Hamburg and Amsterdam CommunitiesThe Settlement of the London CommunityCenters and Communities in the New WorldOrganization, Leadership and SocietyCultural and Intellectual CreationYosef Kaplan - The Intellectual Ferment in the Spanish-Portuguese Community of 17th Century AmsterdamHenry Mechoulan - Menasseh ben IsraelGerard Nahon - From New Christians to the Portuguese Jewish Nation in FranceIntroductionNew Christians and the Royal GovernmentGeography, Economy, ReligionDaily Life and Religion in the 18th CenturyCommunal Self-GovernmentBooks and Literature: From Crypto-Jewish Works to Rabbinical TreatisesIntimacies: Wills and CorrespondenceThe Portuguese and the Political Struggle for Emancipation (1789-1791)Jonathan I. Israel - The Sephardi Contribution to Economic Life and Colonization in Europe and the New World (16th-18th Centuries)David M. Bunis - The Language of the Sephardim: A Historical OverviewIntroductionNames of the LanguageAlphabet and writing systemLadino (the language of sacred-text translation)PeriodizationMiddle Period (1493 to c. 1810)Late Middle Period (c. 1729- c. 1810)Modern Period (c. 1811-present)Characteristics of the modern languagePhonologyComponent structureHispanic elementsHebrew-AramaicBorrowings from traditional coterritorial languagesLoans from European prestige languagesIncorporations from languages in countries of immigrationRegional variationInfluence of the Sephardi vernacular on other languagesConcluding remarksAmnon Shiloah - Development of Jewish Liturgical Singing in SpainElena Romero - Literary Creation in the Sephardi DiasporaRobert Bonfil - The Legacy of Sephardi Jewry in Historical WritingBack Cover
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