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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 34 From these figures it is clear that while the gener-al mortality rates increased during the period 1822– 66, that of the Jews decreased; the decrease continu-ing to such an extent that in 1897 the rate was only 14.73 per 1,000 population. Among the Christian population a decrease manifested itself between 1878 and 1897, but it was not so large as that among the Jews. The mortality of 14.73 per 1,000 of the Jews in Prussia is considered by Ruppin “ so low that it has not been reached in any country in the world, and is the ideal of hygienic and sanitary achievement to which all may strive.” It is remark-able that this low mortality mostly occurs among children under fifteen years of age, the number of deaths among whom is much smaller with the Jews than with the Christians. The mortality of persons over fifteen years of age is only a little less among the Jews than among the Christians; and during the five years 1893 to 1897 it was even 0.4 per 1,000 larger, as may be seen from the following table: Hungary also possesses good records of vital statistics, and there it is found that the mortality of the Jews is much below that of their non- Jew-ish neighbors. Lombroso’s figures show that the rate of mortality of Christians under fifty years of age in that country is 14 in 1,000, while that of the Jews is only 10. Körösi shows the same for Buda-pest for all deaths. For 1885 to 1893 his figures are: Roman Catholics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 deaths per 10,000. Lutherans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 “ “ “ Calvinists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 “ “ “ Other Protestants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 “ “ “ Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 “ “ “ From 1886 to 1890 the mortality per 1,000 of the population in Budapest was, according to Körösi, as follows: In Austrian Galicia the available data tend to confirm the low general mortality of the Jews, notwithstanding the poor economic and social conditions under which they find themselves and in spite of the high infant mortality. V. Kitz (“ Die Bewegung der Bevölkerung in Galizien i. J. 1882 mit Rücksicht auf Konfessionen,” in “ Statistische Monatsschrift,” 1883, p. 550) shows the mortality per 1,000 population to be as follows: Roman Cath-olics, 33.2; Greek Catholics, 42.0; Protestants, 29.1; Jews, 29.4. In Algiers Legoyt (“ De la Vitalité de la Race Juive,” in “ Jour. de la Société Statistique de Paris,” 1865, vi.) records that there occurred one death among 22.5 Europeans, and only one death among 35.8 Jews. According to Boudin (“ Géographie Médicale,” ii. 216) the mortality in Algiers in 1844 and 1845 per 1,000 population was 57.7 among the Europeans and only 33.9 among the Jews. In Bulgaria, where the general mortality during the period 1893– 99 was 26 per 1,000 population, the number of deaths according to religious belief was as follows: Jews, 22; Greek Catholics, 24; Mo-hammedans, 27; Armenians, 44. In general the mor-tality among the Jews was 22 and among others 28 per 1,000 popula-tion. A point worthy of notice in connection with the mortality in Bul-garia is that the Armenians, who, like the Jews, live mostly in cities, show the highest mortality rate, while the Jews, in spite of being townfolk, show the lowest ( H. Rimalovsky, “ Die Jüdische Bevölkerung in Bulgarien,” in Nossig, “ Jüdische Statistik,” p. 316). The mortality of the Jews in Warsaw, Poland, is also less than that of the Christian population, not-withstanding the fact that the infant mortality is very great among the Jews. According to Wengierow ( l. c.), it appears that in 1889 in 1,000 population the mortality was: 28.1 Christians and only 17.9 Jews. The same is the case with the Jewish population of Russia. According to the census of 1897, the mor-tality in the Pale of Settlement was 26.3 per 1,000 among the Christians, while among the Jews it was only 16.3 (“ Voskhod,” March, 1904, p. 127). From various statistics of the Jews in the Unit-ed States of America the same phenomena are to be observed. In spite of the fact that the immigrant Jews live there in the congested tenement districts of cities, their rate of mortality is much below that of the other races and peoples in the same locali-ty. From Billings’ statistics of 60,330 Jews living in the United States on Dec. 31, 1889, it has been elic-ited that the average annual mortality was only 7.11 per 1,000 population, which is “ little more than half the annual death- rate among other persons of the same so-cial class and condition of living in this country” (“ Vital Statistics of the Jews in the United States,” p. 10). In the “ Report of Vital Statistics of New York City for 1890” it is shown that during the six years ending May 31, 1890, the mortality was as follows: The Russian and Polish Jews are thus shown to have the lowest mortality. Moreover, their low death- rate, as the census report points out, does not fully appear in these figures, because a consid- In Bulgaria. In the Uni-ted States. Mortality Mortara CaseAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 34 From these figures it is clear that while the gener-al mortality rates increased during the period 1822– 66, that of the Jews decreased; the decrease continu-ing to such an extent that in 1897 the rate was only 14.73 per 1,000 population. Among the Christian population a decrease manifested itself between 1878 and 1897, but it was not so large as that among the Jews. The mortality of 14.73 per 1,000 of the Jews in Prussia is considered by Ruppin “ so low that it has not been reached in any country in the world, and is the ideal of hygienic and sanitary achievement to which all may strive.” It is remark-able that this low mortality mostly occurs among children under fifteen years of age, the number of deaths among whom is much smaller with the Jews than with the Christians. The mortality of persons over fifteen years of age is only a little less among the Jews than among the Christians; and during the five years 1893 to 1897 it was even 0.4 per 1,000 larger, as may be seen from the following table: Hungary also possesses good records of vital statistics, and there it is found that the mortality of the Jews is much below that of their non- Jew-ish neighbors. Lombroso’s figures show that the rate of mortality of Christians under fifty years of age in that country is 14 in 1,000, while that of the Jews is only 10. Körösi shows the same for Buda-pest for all deaths. For 1885 to 1893 his figures are: Roman Catholics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 deaths per 10,000. Lutherans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 “ “ “ Calvinists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 “ “ “ Other Protestants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 “ “ “ Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 “ “ “ From 1886 to 1890 the mortality per 1,000 of the population in Budapest was, according to Körösi, as follows: In Austrian Galicia the available data tend to confirm the low general mortality of the Jews, notwithstanding the poor economic and social conditions under which they find themselves and in spite of the high infant mortality. V. Kitz (“ Die Bewegung der Bevölkerung in Galizien i. J. 1882 mit Rücksicht auf Konfessionen,” in “ Statistische Monatsschrift,” 1883, p. 550) shows the mortality per 1,000 population to be as follows: Roman Cath-olics, 33.2; Greek Catholics, 42.0; Protestants, 29.1; Jews, 29.4. In Algiers Legoyt (“ De la Vitalité de la Race Juive,” in “ Jour. de la Société Statistique de Paris,” 1865, vi.) records that there occurred one death among 22.5 Europeans, and only one death among 35.8 Jews. According to Boudin (“ Géographie Médicale,” ii. 216) the mortality in Algiers in 1844 and 1845 per 1,000 population was 57.7 among the Europeans and only 33.9 among the Jews. In Bulgaria, where the general mortality during the period 1893– 99 was 26 per 1,000 population, the number of deaths according to religious belief was as follows: Jews, 22; Greek Catholics, 24; Mo-hammedans, 27; Armenians, 44. In general the mor-tality among the Jews was 22 and among others 28 per 1,000 popula-tion. A point worthy of notice in connection with the mortality in Bul-garia is that the Armenians, who, like the Jews, live mostly in cities, show the highest mortality rate, while the Jews, in spite of being townfolk, show the lowest ( H. Rimalovsky, “ Die Jüdische Bevölkerung in Bulgarien,” in Nossig, “ Jüdische Statistik,” p. 316). The mortality of the Jews in Warsaw, Poland, is also less than that of the Christian population, not-withstanding the fact that the infant mortality is very great among the Jews. According to Wengierow ( l. c.), it appears that in 1889 in 1,000 population the mortality was: 28.1 Christians and only 17.9 Jews. The same is the case with the Jewish population of Russia. According to the census of 1897, the mor-tality in the Pale of Settlement was 26.3 per 1,000 among the Christians, while among the Jews it was only 16.3 (“ Voskhod,” March, 1904, p. 127). From various statistics of the Jews in the Unit-ed States of America the same phenomena are to be observed. In spite of the fact that the immigrant Jews live there in the congested tenement districts of cities, their rate of mortality is much below that of the other races and peoples in the same locali-ty. From Billings’ statistics of 60,330 Jews living in the United States on Dec. 31, 1889, it has been elic-ited that the average annual mortality was only 7.11 per 1,000 population, which is “ little more than half the annual death- rate among other persons of the same so-cial class and condition of living in this country” (“ Vital Statistics of the Jews in the United States,” p. 10). In the “ Report of Vital Statistics of New York City for 1890” it is shown that during the six years ending May 31, 1890, the mortality was as follows: The Russian and Polish Jews are thus shown to have the lowest mortality. Moreover, their low death- rate, as the census report points out, does not fully appear in these figures, because a consid- In Bulgaria. In the Uni-ted States. Mortality Mortara Case Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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