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25 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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25 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA the most positive orders that the Jews and Chris-tians, dwelling in all parts of Your Majesty’s do-minions, shall be perfectly protected, and that no person shall molest them in any manner whatsoev-er in anything which concerns their safety and tranquillity; and that they may be placed in the en-joyment of the same advantages as all other subjects of Your Majesty,” etc. Montefiore was successful in both attempts. The prisoners were liberated; and on Feb. 15, 1864, the sultan published an edict granting equal rights of justice to the Jews (“ Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore,” ii. 145 et seq., Lon-don, 1890; see also the account of the journey by Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, the physician who accom-panied Montefiore, entitled “ Narrative of a Jour-ney to Morocco,” London, 1866). This edict of emancipation was confirmed by Mohammed’s son and successor, Muley Hasan ( 1873), on his acces-sion to the throne, and again on Sept. 18, 1880, af-ter the conference in Madrid. Such edicts and promises of a similar nature made from time to time to the Alliance Israélite Universelle, even if they are seriously intended, are, however, abso-lutely useless, since they are not carried into ef-fect by the local magistrates, and if they were they would cause the old, deeply rooted hatred of the fanatical population to burst forth into flames. Thus, for example, the sultan Sulaiman ( 1795– 1822) decreed that the Jews of Fez might wear shoes; but so many Jews were killed in broad daylight in the streets of that city that they themselves asked the sultan to repeal the edict. According to a statistical report of the Alliance Israélite Universelle for the years 1864– 80 no less than 307 Jews were murdered in the city and district of Morocco, which crimes, although brought to the attention of the magistracy upon every occasion, remained unpunished ( see “ Bulletin de l’Alliance Israélite Universelle,” No. 2, p. 17, Paris, 1880). The ideas of law and justice which make such conditions possible are ex-pressed in the Moroccan proverb, “ One may kill as many as seven Jews without being punished.” A change of ruler in Morocco has always meant a time of great danger to the Jews. Even at the lat-est of such changes, on the death of Muley Hasan, who had been very considerate to-ward Jews, disturbances broke out in the interior which more than once greatly endangered the lives of the Jews. Many wholesale murders and plunderings of the Jews have fol-lowed upon their support of an unsuccessful pre-tender to the throne or upon some other lack of political foresight. An equally decisive influence in the passive character of the history of the Mo-roccan Jews is exerted by the conflagrations, fam-ines, and epidemics which claim their numerous victims in every decade, and against which the in-habitants, waiting in fatalistic inactivity, have not yet thought of opposing organized preventive measures. In Fez alone 65,000 persons succumbed during the latest visitation of the plague, in 1799. On such occasions the Moslem condescends to ask the Jewish rabbi to pray in public; Jews and Mos-lems then go together through the streets, calling on God to spare their lives. Like common needs, so also common superstitions bind Jews and Moors together. In the mountains of Ashron is a Jewish saint to whose sanctuary on the summit of a steep peak infertile women of both races make pilgrim-ages, inflicting self- castigation the while ( Chénier, l. c. i. 154). In other respects such a thing as peace-ful, social intercourse does not seem to exist be-tween Moslems and Jews in Morocco; and the ha-tred of the former toward the latter has been hand-ed down through generations in many legal limita-tions, the principal ones of which Edmund de Ami-cis (“ Morocco, Its People and Places,” p. 248) enu-merates thus: “ They can not bear witness before a judge, and must pros-trate themselves on the ground before any tribunal; they can not possess lands or houses outside their own quarter; they must not raise their hands against a Mussulman, even in self-defense, except in the case of being assaulted under their own roofs; they can only wear dark colors; they must carry their dead to the cemetery at a run; they must ask the Sultan’s leave to marry; they must be within their own quarter at sunset; they must pay the Moorish guard who stands sentinel at the gates of the Mellah; and they must present rich gifts to the Sultan on the four great festivals of Islam, and on every occasion of birth or matrimony in the imperial family.” A certain number of Jews are excepted from these numerous restrictions, namely: ( 1) those who have become naturalized by res-idence in European states and as cit-izens of those states stand under the protection of their embassies; ( 2) those who are agents of European officials and merchants and hence stand under the protection of the government to which the latter belong. It is interesting to note that it was the above- mentioned Moses ibn ‘ Attar, the favorite of Muley Ismail, who, in the contract concluded by him with England in 1721, laid the foundation for the system of protection which not only became the basis of all peaceful intercourse between the European states and Morocco, but meant for some Jews the only possibility of an ex-istence secure against the unjust laws of the land, and for all the hope of an improvement in their position. France also acquired by contract the right of protection in 1767. In 1860 there were 103 Jews among 463 persons who were under the pro-tection of some foreign government; the distribu-tion according to countries being as follows (“ Bul-letin de l’Alliance Israélite Universelle,” 1880, i. 32): The naturalization and protection of Jews by for-eign states is a thorn in the flesh to the Moroccan government. It tries to prevent the former by put-ting great difficulties in the way of Jewish emigra- Monte-fiore’s Journey to Morocco. Dangers of the Jewish Position. System of Natural-ization and Protection.Morocco Aac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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25 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA the most positive orders that the Jews and Chris-tians, dwelling in all parts of Your Majesty’s do-minions, shall be perfectly protected, and that no person shall molest them in any manner whatsoev-er in anything which concerns their safety and tranquillity; and that they may be placed in the en-joyment of the same advantages as all other subjects of Your Majesty,” etc. Montefiore was successful in both attempts. The prisoners were liberated; and on Feb. 15, 1864, the sultan published an edict granting equal rights of justice to the Jews (“ Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore,” ii. 145 et seq., Lon-don, 1890; see also the account of the journey by Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, the physician who accom-panied Montefiore, entitled “ Narrative of a Jour-ney to Morocco,” London, 1866). This edict of emancipation was confirmed by Mohammed’s son and successor, Muley Hasan ( 1873), on his acces-sion to the throne, and again on Sept. 18, 1880, af-ter the conference in Madrid. Such edicts and promises of a similar nature made from time to time to the Alliance Israélite Universelle, even if they are seriously intended, are, however, abso-lutely useless, since they are not carried into ef-fect by the local magistrates, and if they were they would cause the old, deeply rooted hatred of the fanatical population to burst forth into flames. Thus, for example, the sultan Sulaiman ( 1795– 1822) decreed that the Jews of Fez might wear shoes; but so many Jews were killed in broad daylight in the streets of that city that they themselves asked the sultan to repeal the edict. According to a statistical report of the Alliance Israélite Universelle for the years 1864– 80 no less than 307 Jews were murdered in the city and district of Morocco, which crimes, although brought to the attention of the magistracy upon every occasion, remained unpunished ( see “ Bulletin de l’Alliance Israélite Universelle,” No. 2, p. 17, Paris, 1880). The ideas of law and justice which make such conditions possible are ex-pressed in the Moroccan proverb, “ One may kill as many as seven Jews without being punished.” A change of ruler in Morocco has always meant a time of great danger to the Jews. Even at the lat-est of such changes, on the death of Muley Hasan, who had been very considerate to-ward Jews, disturbances broke out in the interior which more than once greatly endangered the lives of the Jews. Many wholesale murders and plunderings of the Jews have fol-lowed upon their support of an unsuccessful pre-tender to the throne or upon some other lack of political foresight. An equally decisive influence in the passive character of the history of the Mo-roccan Jews is exerted by the conflagrations, fam-ines, and epidemics which claim their numerous victims in every decade, and against which the in-habitants, waiting in fatalistic inactivity, have not yet thought of opposing organized preventive measures. In Fez alone 65,000 persons succumbed during the latest visitation of the plague, in 1799. On such occasions the Moslem condescends to ask the Jewish rabbi to pray in public; Jews and Mos-lems then go together through the streets, calling on God to spare their lives. Like common needs, so also common superstitions bind Jews and Moors together. In the mountains of Ashron is a Jewish saint to whose sanctuary on the summit of a steep peak infertile women of both races make pilgrim-ages, inflicting self- castigation the while ( Chénier, l. c. i. 154). In other respects such a thing as peace-ful, social intercourse does not seem to exist be-tween Moslems and Jews in Morocco; and the ha-tred of the former toward the latter has been hand-ed down through generations in many legal limita-tions, the principal ones of which Edmund de Ami-cis (“ Morocco, Its People and Places,” p. 248) enu-merates thus: “ They can not bear witness before a judge, and must pros-trate themselves on the ground before any tribunal; they can not possess lands or houses outside their own quarter; they must not raise their hands against a Mussulman, even in self-defense, except in the case of being assaulted under their own roofs; they can only wear dark colors; they must carry their dead to the cemetery at a run; they must ask the Sultan’s leave to marry; they must be within their own quarter at sunset; they must pay the Moorish guard who stands sentinel at the gates of the Mellah; and they must present rich gifts to the Sultan on the four great festivals of Islam, and on every occasion of birth or matrimony in the imperial family.” A certain number of Jews are excepted from these numerous restrictions, namely: ( 1) those who have become naturalized by res-idence in European states and as cit-izens of those states stand under the protection of their embassies; ( 2) those who are agents of European officials and merchants and hence stand under the protection of the government to which the latter belong. It is interesting to note that it was the above- mentioned Moses ibn ‘ Attar, the favorite of Muley Ismail, who, in the contract concluded by him with England in 1721, laid the foundation for the system of protection which not only became the basis of all peaceful intercourse between the European states and Morocco, but meant for some Jews the only possibility of an ex-istence secure against the unjust laws of the land, and for all the hope of an improvement in their position. France also acquired by contract the right of protection in 1767. In 1860 there were 103 Jews among 463 persons who were under the pro-tection of some foreign government; the distribu-tion according to countries being as follows (“ Bul-letin de l’Alliance Israélite Universelle,” 1880, i. 32): The naturalization and protection of Jews by for-eign states is a thorn in the flesh to the Moroccan government. It tries to prevent the former by put-ting great difficulties in the way of Jewish emigra- Monte-fiore’s Journey to Morocco. Dangers of the Jewish Position. System of Natural-ization and Protection. Morocco Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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