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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 454 P PADERBORN: Town in the province of West-phalia, Prussia. The presence of Jews there is first mentioned in 1606, when the diet of Paderborn de-cided to prevent any increase of the Jewish inha-bitants on account of the exorbitant interest exact-ed by those of them engaged in money- lending. On Feb. 23, 1607, the prince bishop Theodor von Für-stenberg promised the diet to do his best to com-ply with its wishes; and he issued to the Jews of the locality the following directions: They were not to charge a higher rate of interest than one schwanenheller per week on every thaler; once in every year they were absolutely obliged to settle in full with their debtors; every obligation of a debt was to be approved by the authorities; pledg-es obtained from Christians and not redeemed within the prescribed time might be sold only in accordance with an official valuation; Jews might no longer lend money on real estate; claims of eve-ry kind whatever would not, under any considera-tion, be valid for more than two years. Jews were permitted to deal only in gold, silver, gilded goblets, rings, and precious stones. When Duke Christian of Brunswick in 1621 passed through Westphalia, levying war contributions, the Jews of Paderborn were compelled to pay the sum of 30,000 thaler. The expulsion of the Jews and their absolute ex-clusion from trade were again sought in 1651; but the request was not complied with. The decree regulating their position, promulgated at the end of the seventeenth century by Bishop Hermann Werner von Metternich, continued in force until the foundation of the kingdom of Westphalia under Jerome, brother of Napoleon I. A supplementary edict of the elector Clemens August on their legal condition was proclaimed Feb. 3, 1718 ( or 1719). No Jew was al-lowed to marry without the permis-sion of the sovereign; and the maximum number of Jewish families in Paderborn was fixed at 125. The excess of young persons was compelled to emi-grate. Nevertheless there were at times more than 200 Jewish families in Paderborn. The Jews were under the protection of the bishop; and it was his personal right to investigate every year most minu-tely the domestic affairs of every Jewish family. No Jew could be admitted as a resident unless he pos-sessed a letter of safe- conduct from the sovereign. To obtain this it was necessary to produce evidence of the possession of at least 1,000 thaler as well as a testimonial of good behavior. The applicant was then obliged to take an oath that he would be true to the bishop, and would not undertake anything that might be detrimental to the interests of the cathedral chapter. After these formalities had been complied with he became a “ vergleiteter Jude.” Foreign Jews were not permitted to stay in the locality longer than three days. They were not obliged to pay any fees; but the resident Jews were PABLO ALVARO. See BODO. PABLO CHRISTIAN. See CHRISTIANI, PABLO. PACIFIC MESSENGER. See PERIODICALS. PACIFICO CASE: An affair arising out of a claim made on the Greek government by one Dav-id Pacifico, commonly known as “ Don Pacifico” ( born a British subject at Gibraltar 1784; died in London April 12, 1854). Pacifico first began busi-ness at Lagos, Portugal, in 1812, but owing to sym-pathy with the Liberals his property was confiscat-ed by Don Miguel. He was, nevertheless, appoint-ed Portuguese consul at Morocco Feb. 28, 1835, and two years later Portuguese consul- general to Greece. Owing to some complaints he was dis-missed from this latter post Jan. 4, 1842; but he continued to reside at Athens. When the Easter burning of Judas Iscariot customary in that city was given up in 1847 at the request of the Roth-schilds, the mob in revenge burned down Pacifi-co’s house, whereupon he claimed compensation to the amount of £ 26,618. When this rather prepos-terous claim, as well as others, including one of G. Finlay, the Greek historian, was not treated seri-ously by the Greek government, Lord Palmerston sent a British fleet to Piræus ( 1850), and seized all the ships in the harbor. The French government also sent a commission, which could not agree with the English claimants; and the Pacifico case thereupon resulted in a general quarrel, in the course of which the French ambassador took the serious step of withdrawing from London. Palmer-ston was censured for his action in the matter by the House of Lords ( June 18, 1850), but was reas-sured by a vote of confidence passed in the House of Commons by a majority of 46. Ultimately Pacifico received 120,000 drachmas and £ 500 in settlement of his claims; and with this sum he passed the rest of his life in London. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Speech of Lord Palmerston, in Hansard’s Par-liamentary Reports, June 25, 1850, cols. 380– 444; English Par-liamentary Papers, 1850, Nos. 1157, 1179, 1209, 1211, 1226, 1230, 1233; 1851, Nos. 1297, 1415; Finlay, History of Greece, vii. 209– 224; Dict. Nat. Biog. J. PADAN- ARAM ( Assyrian, “ Padanu”): The first element in the word is variously explained as meaning “ road” or “ field,” “ yoke,” and “ plow.” It may indicate in this connection that portion of Aram which could be cultivated— the lowland be-tween the Euphrates and the Tigris, generally men-tioned in contrast with the high plateau of Pales-tine. The district is referred to by this name only in Genesis, while Hosea xii. 13 ( E. V. xii. 12), in de-scribing the life of Jacob, terms the same region “ sedeh Aram” (= “ field of Aram”). Bethuel, the fa-ther of Isaac’s wife Rebecca, came from Padan-aram ( Gen. xxv. 20), whither Jacob had gone to escape from Esau, and where he married two wives ( Gen. xxviii. 2, 5– 7). E. G. H. S. O. Restric-tions in the Eight-eenth Century.Pablo  Alvaro PadoraniAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 454 P PADERBORN: Town in the province of West-phalia, Prussia. The presence of Jews there is first mentioned in 1606, when the diet of Paderborn de-cided to prevent any increase of the Jewish inha-bitants on account of the exorbitant interest exact-ed by those of them engaged in money- lending. On Feb. 23, 1607, the prince bishop Theodor von Für-stenberg promised the diet to do his best to com-ply with its wishes; and he issued to the Jews of the locality the following directions: They were not to charge a higher rate of interest than one schwanenheller per week on every thaler; once in every year they were absolutely obliged to settle in full with their debtors; every obligation of a debt was to be approved by the authorities; pledg-es obtained from Christians and not redeemed within the prescribed time might be sold only in accordance with an official valuation; Jews might no longer lend money on real estate; claims of eve-ry kind whatever would not, under any considera-tion, be valid for more than two years. Jews were permitted to deal only in gold, silver, gilded goblets, rings, and precious stones. When Duke Christian of Brunswick in 1621 passed through Westphalia, levying war contributions, the Jews of Paderborn were compelled to pay the sum of 30,000 thaler. The expulsion of the Jews and their absolute ex-clusion from trade were again sought in 1651; but the request was not complied with. The decree regulating their position, promulgated at the end of the seventeenth century by Bishop Hermann Werner von Metternich, continued in force until the foundation of the kingdom of Westphalia under Jerome, brother of Napoleon I. A supplementary edict of the elector Clemens August on their legal condition was proclaimed Feb. 3, 1718 ( or 1719). No Jew was al-lowed to marry without the permis-sion of the sovereign; and the maximum number of Jewish families in Paderborn was fixed at 125. The excess of young persons was compelled to emi-grate. Nevertheless there were at times more than 200 Jewish families in Paderborn. The Jews were under the protection of the bishop; and it was his personal right to investigate every year most minu-tely the domestic affairs of every Jewish family. No Jew could be admitted as a resident unless he pos-sessed a letter of safe- conduct from the sovereign. To obtain this it was necessary to produce evidence of the possession of at least 1,000 thaler as well as a testimonial of good behavior. The applicant was then obliged to take an oath that he would be true to the bishop, and would not undertake anything that might be detrimental to the interests of the cathedral chapter. After these formalities had been complied with he became a “ vergleiteter Jude.” Foreign Jews were not permitted to stay in the locality longer than three days. They were not obliged to pay any fees; but the resident Jews were PABLO ALVARO. See BODO. PABLO CHRISTIAN. See CHRISTIANI, PABLO. PACIFIC MESSENGER. See PERIODICALS. PACIFICO CASE: An affair arising out of a claim made on the Greek government by one Dav-id Pacifico, commonly known as “ Don Pacifico” ( born a British subject at Gibraltar 1784; died in London April 12, 1854). Pacifico first began busi-ness at Lagos, Portugal, in 1812, but owing to sym-pathy with the Liberals his property was confiscat-ed by Don Miguel. He was, nevertheless, appoint-ed Portuguese consul at Morocco Feb. 28, 1835, and two years later Portuguese consul- general to Greece. Owing to some complaints he was dis-missed from this latter post Jan. 4, 1842; but he continued to reside at Athens. When the Easter burning of Judas Iscariot customary in that city was given up in 1847 at the request of the Roth-schilds, the mob in revenge burned down Pacifi-co’s house, whereupon he claimed compensation to the amount of £ 26,618. When this rather prepos-terous claim, as well as others, including one of G. Finlay, the Greek historian, was not treated seri-ously by the Greek government, Lord Palmerston sent a British fleet to Piræus ( 1850), and seized all the ships in the harbor. The French government also sent a commission, which could not agree with the English claimants; and the Pacifico case thereupon resulted in a general quarrel, in the course of which the French ambassador took the serious step of withdrawing from London. Palmer-ston was censured for his action in the matter by the House of Lords ( June 18, 1850), but was reas-sured by a vote of confidence passed in the House of Commons by a majority of 46. Ultimately Pacifico received 120,000 drachmas and £ 500 in settlement of his claims; and with this sum he passed the rest of his life in London. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Speech of Lord Palmerston, in Hansard’s Par-liamentary Reports, June 25, 1850, cols. 380– 444; English Par-liamentary Papers, 1850, Nos. 1157, 1179, 1209, 1211, 1226, 1230, 1233; 1851, Nos. 1297, 1415; Finlay, History of Greece, vii. 209– 224; Dict. Nat. Biog. J. PADAN- ARAM ( Assyrian, “ Padanu”): The first element in the word is variously explained as meaning “ road” or “ field,” “ yoke,” and “ plow.” It may indicate in this connection that portion of Aram which could be cultivated— the lowland be-tween the Euphrates and the Tigris, generally men-tioned in contrast with the high plateau of Pales-tine. The district is referred to by this name only in Genesis, while Hosea xii. 13 ( E. V. xii. 12), in de-scribing the life of Jacob, terms the same region “ sedeh Aram” (= “ field of Aram”). Bethuel, the fa-ther of Isaac’s wife Rebecca, came from Padan-aram ( Gen. xxv. 20), whither Jacob had gone to escape from Esau, and where he married two wives ( Gen. xxviii. 2, 5– 7). E. G. H. S. O. Restric-tions in the Eight-eenth Century. Pablo Alvaro Padorani Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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