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451 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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451 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA and numerous articles on important political ques-tions in the Belgian liberal journals, the most strik-ing being a series entitled “ France et Belgique.” BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sarrut, Biographies des Hommes du Jour, v., Brussels, 1838; Arch. Isr. March 15, 1867; La Belgique Judiciaire, April 11, 1867. S. J. KA. ÓVÁRY, LEOPOLD: Hungarian historian; cus-todian of the Hungarian state archives; born at Veszprim Dec. 31, 1833. He took part in the Hun-garian struggle for liberty in 1848 and in the Ital-ian war of independence in 1860. After the political troubles had been settled he devoted himself to the study of history, in which he soon achieved distinc-tion. In 1876 he was appointed assistant custodian of the state archives, in 1904 chief custodian; and in 1892 he was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. A knighthood of the Order of the Crown of Italy has been conferred upon him. Ováry’s writings had considerable political influ-ence, especially those attacking the anti- Hungari-an Rumanian propaganda in Italy. His chief works include: “ Nápolyi Történelmi Kutatások” ( Buda-pest, 1874); “ III. Pál Pápa s Farnese Sándor Bibor-nok Magyarországra Vonatkozó Diplomácziai Le-velezései” ( ib. 1879); “ Oklevéltár Bethlen Gábor Diplomácziai Összeköttetéseinek Történetéhez” ( ib. 1886); “ Zsigmond Királly és az Olasz Diplomaczia” ( ib. 1889); “ A Magyar Anjouk Eredete” ( ib. 1893); “ La Questione Dacoromana e lo Stato Ungherese” ( Rome, 1894; German ed., Budapest, 1894; French ed., Paris, 1894). Ováry embraced Christianity. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Akadémiai Almanach, 1893, p. 165; Pallas Lex.; Szin-nyei, Magyar Irók Elete. S. L. V. OVEN: Stoves built into a room for the purpose of heating it have always been unknown in the East. The substitute for them is the “ ah,” or porta-ble brazier, which even at present in the Orient is placed in the room during cold weather ( comp. Jer. xxxvi. 23). In some regions it is the custom to put a wooden frame like a low table over the pot of coals when the latter no longer send up flames; and over this is spread a large rug to keep in the heat, its ends serving to cover up to the waist the persons lying around the brazier. It is questionable whether the Hebrews were acquainted with this practise ( comp. Niebuhr, “‘ Reisen,” ii. 394). The usual word for oven, “ tannur,” designates the baking- oven, which was probably like that still used among the Arabs. It commonly consists of a large open pot or jar which is half filled with small bricks. These, when properly heated, serve to bake the dough spread over them or stuck to the sides of the jar. Horse or sheep dung is usually used as fuel by the modern fellahs ( comp. I Kings xvii. 12; Isa. xliv. 15; Ps. cxx. 4). As now, so probably among the ancient Hebrews the dough was baked in a few minutes, of-ten being slightly burned ( comp. Hos. vii. 4, 7 et seq.). Such ovens are to- day usually placed in special huts, each household either having one to itself or sharing it with several families. In cold winters the fellahs not seldom use these to warm themselves. The “ mahabat” was probably a pan devised for baking thin cakes ( Lev. ii. 5, vii. 9; Ezek. iv. 3), and in which meat also was sometimes roasted ( II Macc. vii. 3, 5). In II Sam. xii. 31, Jer. xliii. 9, and Nah. iii. 14 “ malben” is used to indicate the large brickkiln for burning bricks. In Ecclus. ( Sirach) xxvii. 5, xxxviii. 10 is mentioned the êÜìéíïò, which was used for burning pottery. “ Kibshan” and “ kur” ( comp. Gen. xix. 28; Ex. ix. 8, 10; xix. 18; Mal. iv. 1) designate the smelting- furnace. The lat-ter term is used in Prov. xvii. 3, xxvii. 21 ( comp. Wisdom iii. 6) for the smelting of gold, and in Ezek. xxii. 18– 22 and Isa. xlviii. 10 for that of sil-ver. In Deut. iv. 20, I Kings viii. 51, and Jer. xi. 4, however, it is used also to designate the furnace employed for smelting iron ore. In Dan. iii. a furnace (“ attun”) is mentioned into which Daniel’s three friends were thrown. It is ev-ident that this was like a smelting- furnace, open at the top to admit of the reception of the ore, and having an opening also below, which could be closed, for raking the fire and withdrawing the molten metal ( comp. ib. verses 22, 23, 26). E. G. H. W. N. OVERREACHING. See ONA’AH. OVRUCH ( OVRUTCH): District town in Vol-hynia. In 1629 only three houses there were owned by Jews; but a fairly large Jewish commu-nity must have existed, for in that year a syna-gogue was built (“ Arkhiv Yugo- Zapadnoi Rossii,” VII., ii. 413). In 1883 in the whole district of Ovruch there were, besides Jewish settlements in towns, seven rural settlements and forty- two Jew-ish farmers. In 1896 the Jews of Ovruch numbered 4,177 in a total population of 9,845, and they pos-sessed three houses of prayer and one poorhouse. In the same year there were in the whole district, in a total population of 194,976, about 20,750 Jews, possessing two synagogues and twenty- one houses of prayer. Petty trades, especially in the smaller towns, were almost entirely in the hands of the Jews. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Regesty, No. 783; Entziklopedicheski Slovar, xxi. 673. H. R. A. S. W. OWL: Rendering in the English versions of the following Hebrew words: “ kos “( Lev. xi. 17; A. V. “ little owl”); “ yanshuf” ( ib.; A. V. “ great owl”; LXX. ßâéò); “ tinshemet” ( ib. v. 18; R. V., after the Samari-tan and Targum, “ horned owl”; Vulgate and A. V. “ swan”). The Authorized Version renders “ bat ha-ya‘ anah,” “ kippoz,” and “ lilit” also by “ owl” ( but see OSTRICH; SERPENT). “ Kos,” referred to in Ps. cii. 7 as living among ruins, may be identified with the Carina glaux, the emblem of Pallas Athene, and called by the Arabs “ bumah,” the most abundant of all owls in Pales-tine. “ Yanshuf” is usually identified with the Bubo ascalaphus, which inhabits ruins and caves thro-ughout Palestine, but is especially abundant aro-und Petra, the ancient Edom ( comp. Isa. xxxiv. 11). There are also found in Palestine the white owl, the great horned owl, the wood- owl ( Syrnium aluco), the Indian fish- owl ( Ketupa ceylonensis), and the long- eared and the short- eared owl ( Strix otus and S. brachyotus). The terms for “ owl” occurring in the Talmud are: àúå÷÷, éàå÷÷, and éàå÷. This bird was eaten in Bab-ylon, but was forbidden as food in Meraba, where Ottolenghi OwlAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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451 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA and numerous articles on important political ques-tions in the Belgian liberal journals, the most strik-ing being a series entitled “ France et Belgique.” BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sarrut, Biographies des Hommes du Jour, v., Brussels, 1838; Arch. Isr. March 15, 1867; La Belgique Judiciaire, April 11, 1867. S. J. KA. ÓVÁRY, LEOPOLD: Hungarian historian; cus-todian of the Hungarian state archives; born at Veszprim Dec. 31, 1833. He took part in the Hun-garian struggle for liberty in 1848 and in the Ital-ian war of independence in 1860. After the political troubles had been settled he devoted himself to the study of history, in which he soon achieved distinc-tion. In 1876 he was appointed assistant custodian of the state archives, in 1904 chief custodian; and in 1892 he was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. A knighthood of the Order of the Crown of Italy has been conferred upon him. Ováry’s writings had considerable political influ-ence, especially those attacking the anti- Hungari-an Rumanian propaganda in Italy. His chief works include: “ Nápolyi Történelmi Kutatások” ( Buda-pest, 1874); “ III. Pál Pápa s Farnese Sándor Bibor-nok Magyarországra Vonatkozó Diplomácziai Le-velezései” ( ib. 1879); “ Oklevéltár Bethlen Gábor Diplomácziai Összeköttetéseinek Történetéhez” ( ib. 1886); “ Zsigmond Királly és az Olasz Diplomaczia” ( ib. 1889); “ A Magyar Anjouk Eredete” ( ib. 1893); “ La Questione Dacoromana e lo Stato Ungherese” ( Rome, 1894; German ed., Budapest, 1894; French ed., Paris, 1894). Ováry embraced Christianity. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Akadémiai Almanach, 1893, p. 165; Pallas Lex.; Szin-nyei, Magyar Irók Elete. S. L. V. OVEN: Stoves built into a room for the purpose of heating it have always been unknown in the East. The substitute for them is the “ ah,” or porta-ble brazier, which even at present in the Orient is placed in the room during cold weather ( comp. Jer. xxxvi. 23). In some regions it is the custom to put a wooden frame like a low table over the pot of coals when the latter no longer send up flames; and over this is spread a large rug to keep in the heat, its ends serving to cover up to the waist the persons lying around the brazier. It is questionable whether the Hebrews were acquainted with this practise ( comp. Niebuhr, “‘ Reisen,” ii. 394). The usual word for oven, “ tannur,” designates the baking- oven, which was probably like that still used among the Arabs. It commonly consists of a large open pot or jar which is half filled with small bricks. These, when properly heated, serve to bake the dough spread over them or stuck to the sides of the jar. Horse or sheep dung is usually used as fuel by the modern fellahs ( comp. I Kings xvii. 12; Isa. xliv. 15; Ps. cxx. 4). As now, so probably among the ancient Hebrews the dough was baked in a few minutes, of-ten being slightly burned ( comp. Hos. vii. 4, 7 et seq.). Such ovens are to- day usually placed in special huts, each household either having one to itself or sharing it with several families. In cold winters the fellahs not seldom use these to warm themselves. The “ mahabat” was probably a pan devised for baking thin cakes ( Lev. ii. 5, vii. 9; Ezek. iv. 3), and in which meat also was sometimes roasted ( II Macc. vii. 3, 5). In II Sam. xii. 31, Jer. xliii. 9, and Nah. iii. 14 “ malben” is used to indicate the large brickkiln for burning bricks. In Ecclus. ( Sirach) xxvii. 5, xxxviii. 10 is mentioned the êÜìéíïò, which was used for burning pottery. “ Kibshan” and “ kur” ( comp. Gen. xix. 28; Ex. ix. 8, 10; xix. 18; Mal. iv. 1) designate the smelting- furnace. The lat-ter term is used in Prov. xvii. 3, xxvii. 21 ( comp. Wisdom iii. 6) for the smelting of gold, and in Ezek. xxii. 18– 22 and Isa. xlviii. 10 for that of sil-ver. In Deut. iv. 20, I Kings viii. 51, and Jer. xi. 4, however, it is used also to designate the furnace employed for smelting iron ore. In Dan. iii. a furnace (“ attun”) is mentioned into which Daniel’s three friends were thrown. It is ev-ident that this was like a smelting- furnace, open at the top to admit of the reception of the ore, and having an opening also below, which could be closed, for raking the fire and withdrawing the molten metal ( comp. ib. verses 22, 23, 26). E. G. H. W. N. OVERREACHING. See ONA’AH. OVRUCH ( OVRUTCH): District town in Vol-hynia. In 1629 only three houses there were owned by Jews; but a fairly large Jewish commu-nity must have existed, for in that year a syna-gogue was built (“ Arkhiv Yugo- Zapadnoi Rossii,” VII., ii. 413). In 1883 in the whole district of Ovruch there were, besides Jewish settlements in towns, seven rural settlements and forty- two Jew-ish farmers. In 1896 the Jews of Ovruch numbered 4,177 in a total population of 9,845, and they pos-sessed three houses of prayer and one poorhouse. In the same year there were in the whole district, in a total population of 194,976, about 20,750 Jews, possessing two synagogues and twenty- one houses of prayer. Petty trades, especially in the smaller towns, were almost entirely in the hands of the Jews. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Regesty, No. 783; Entziklopedicheski Slovar, xxi. 673. H. R. A. S. W. OWL: Rendering in the English versions of the following Hebrew words: “ kos “( Lev. xi. 17; A. V. “ little owl”); “ yanshuf” ( ib.; A. V. “ great owl”; LXX. ßâéò); “ tinshemet” ( ib. v. 18; R. V., after the Samari-tan and Targum, “ horned owl”; Vulgate and A. V. “ swan”). The Authorized Version renders “ bat ha-ya‘ anah,” “ kippoz,” and “ lilit” also by “ owl” ( but see OSTRICH; SERPENT). “ Kos,” referred to in Ps. cii. 7 as living among ruins, may be identified with the Carina glaux, the emblem of Pallas Athene, and called by the Arabs “ bumah,” the most abundant of all owls in Pales-tine. “ Yanshuf” is usually identified with the Bubo ascalaphus, which inhabits ruins and caves thro-ughout Palestine, but is especially abundant aro-und Petra, the ancient Edom ( comp. Isa. xxxiv. 11). There are also found in Palestine the white owl, the great horned owl, the wood- owl ( Syrnium aluco), the Indian fish- owl ( Ketupa ceylonensis), and the long- eared and the short- eared owl ( Strix otus and S. brachyotus). The terms for “ owl” occurring in the Talmud are: àúå÷÷, éàå÷÷, and éàå÷. This bird was eaten in Bab-ylon, but was forbidden as food in Meraba, where Ottolenghi Owl Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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