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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 6 As is well known, this group of diseases is more frequent among townfolk; and as the Jews who are here under consideration live almost exclusively in cities, they must be compared with people liv-ing under similar conditions. It appears that when contrasted with the general population of the Unit-ed States, the Jews show a higher mortality; but when compared with the city dwellers, the mortal-ity among them is much smaller than that among others. This is confirmed by a consideration of the census figures for the six years ending May 31, 1890, in which the mortality from diseases of the urinary system is given for the city of New York as follows, per 100,000 population, the cases being classified according to the birthplace of the mother: This shows a larger percentage of syphilis among the non- Jews. This relative immunity of the Jews from syphilis has been observed in other countries ( see J. K. Proksch, “ Gesch. der Venerischen Krank-heiten,” 1895, i. 125), and has been attributed to circumcision ( see Wunderbar, “ Biblisch- Talmu-dische Medizin,” p. 26, Riga, 1850; Collin, “ Die Be-schneidung der Israeliten,” p. 9, Leipsic, 1842). In Chicago E. A. Fishkin has observed that among the patients of the dispensary of the Unit-ed Hebrew Charities the proportion of syphilis was only 0.9 per cent of the total number of patients af-flicted with skin- diseases, as against 11.8 per cent among the general population of the United States ( according to the returns of the American Derma-tological Association); but the cases observed were those of individuals younger than forty, and three were minors (“ Jour. American Medical Asso-ciation,” Aug. 23, 1902). Of the diseases of the eye, the Jews suffer more than others from trachoma ( granular lids), follicu-lar conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and, according to some authorities, retinitis pigmentosa. This last is a hereditary disease of the eye characterized by the deposition of pigment in the retina, which leads to contraction of the field of vision, and ulti-mately to total blindness. Its frequency among the Jews is attributed to consanguineous marriages ( see R. Liebreich, “ Abkunft aus Ehen unter Blut-vervandte als Grund von Retinitis Pigmentosa,” 1860, in “ Deutsche Klinik,” No. 6). Of the distur-bances of vision, myopia, astigmatism, and color-blindness, as well as blindness, are known to be more frequent among the Jews than among others ( see BLINDNESS; EYE— PATHOLOGY). Of the diseases of the skin, eczema is said by Hardy to be more common among the Jews than among others; but many other dermatologists with extensive experience among the Jews assert the contrary (“ Bulletin Médical,” 1891, p. 851). Fishkin found that among the immigrant Jews in Chicago, the pro-portion of eczema among his total number of cases of skin- diseases was 34.5 per cent as against 29.8 per cent among the general popu-lation of the United States ( according to the statis-tics of the American Dermatological Association), which shows that the Jews are more liable to the disease (“ Jour. American Medical Association,” Aug. 23, 1902). Parasitic diseases of the skin and scalp are said to be more common among the Jews in eastern Europe than among their non- Jewish neighbors. This is particularly emphasized in reference to scabies and favus (“ plica Polonica” and “ plica Judaica,” for instance). In the United States this is not observed to be the fact when the immigrant Jews are compared with others of the same social status. These diseases being generally observed among the poor and degraded, a reason is found for their frequency among the eastern European Jews. In western Europe and in America, where the social and economic status of the Jews is su-perior, parasitic diseases of the skin are as uncom-mon among them as among others. Psoriasis is also said to be more frequently met Irish . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.45 English . . . . . . . . . . . 206.13 Bohemians . . . . . . . 154.85 French . . . . . . . . . . . 150.65 Germans . . . . . . . . . 141.78 Americans ( white) . 124.14 Italians . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.38 Hungarians ( mostly Jews) . . . . . . . . . . . 51.68 Russians and Poles ( mostly Jews) . . . . 48.34 The lowest mortality is thus seen to be recorded among the Hungarians, Russians, and Poles, who were almost exclusively Jews. The best reason for this is furnished by the fact that the lowest mortal-ity from alcoholism during the same period in New York city was also observed among the Jews— 1 in 100,000 population, as against 31 among the Irish, 10 among the Germans, and 9 among Americans. Körösi’s statistics for Budapest confirm this view. During the period 1886– 90 the mortality from Bright’s disease per 100,000 population was as fol-lows: Catholics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Lutherans . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Calvinists . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Other Protestants . . . . . . 63 Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 It is thus seen that the lowest mortality from Bright’s disease was observed among the Jews. The best explanation of this is evidently the rarity of the abuse by them of alcoholic beverages. Of the other diseases of the organs of genera-tion, syphilis is one from which the Jews suffer but little as compared with their Gentile neighbors. Jonathan Hutchinson states that such is the case in London, England, where at the Metropolitan Free Hospital, in the Jews’ quarter, in 1854 the pro-portion of Jews to Christians among the outdoor patients was nearly as 1 to 3, yet the ratio of cas-es of syphilis among the former to those among the latter was only as 1 to 15. Jacobs also reports that under Cohen’s service at the Metropolitan Free Hospital during 1882 and 1883 the percentage of syphilis was as follows: Diseases of the Skin. Morbidity MordecaiAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 6 As is well known, this group of diseases is more frequent among townfolk; and as the Jews who are here under consideration live almost exclusively in cities, they must be compared with people liv-ing under similar conditions. It appears that when contrasted with the general population of the Unit-ed States, the Jews show a higher mortality; but when compared with the city dwellers, the mortal-ity among them is much smaller than that among others. This is confirmed by a consideration of the census figures for the six years ending May 31, 1890, in which the mortality from diseases of the urinary system is given for the city of New York as follows, per 100,000 population, the cases being classified according to the birthplace of the mother: This shows a larger percentage of syphilis among the non- Jews. This relative immunity of the Jews from syphilis has been observed in other countries ( see J. K. Proksch, “ Gesch. der Venerischen Krank-heiten,” 1895, i. 125), and has been attributed to circumcision ( see Wunderbar, “ Biblisch- Talmu-dische Medizin,” p. 26, Riga, 1850; Collin, “ Die Be-schneidung der Israeliten,” p. 9, Leipsic, 1842). In Chicago E. A. Fishkin has observed that among the patients of the dispensary of the Unit-ed Hebrew Charities the proportion of syphilis was only 0.9 per cent of the total number of patients af-flicted with skin- diseases, as against 11.8 per cent among the general population of the United States ( according to the returns of the American Derma-tological Association); but the cases observed were those of individuals younger than forty, and three were minors (“ Jour. American Medical Asso-ciation,” Aug. 23, 1902). Of the diseases of the eye, the Jews suffer more than others from trachoma ( granular lids), follicu-lar conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and, according to some authorities, retinitis pigmentosa. This last is a hereditary disease of the eye characterized by the deposition of pigment in the retina, which leads to contraction of the field of vision, and ulti-mately to total blindness. Its frequency among the Jews is attributed to consanguineous marriages ( see R. Liebreich, “ Abkunft aus Ehen unter Blut-vervandte als Grund von Retinitis Pigmentosa,” 1860, in “ Deutsche Klinik,” No. 6). Of the distur-bances of vision, myopia, astigmatism, and color-blindness, as well as blindness, are known to be more frequent among the Jews than among others ( see BLINDNESS; EYE— PATHOLOGY). Of the diseases of the skin, eczema is said by Hardy to be more common among the Jews than among others; but many other dermatologists with extensive experience among the Jews assert the contrary (“ Bulletin Médical,” 1891, p. 851). Fishkin found that among the immigrant Jews in Chicago, the pro-portion of eczema among his total number of cases of skin- diseases was 34.5 per cent as against 29.8 per cent among the general popu-lation of the United States ( according to the statis-tics of the American Dermatological Association), which shows that the Jews are more liable to the disease (“ Jour. American Medical Association,” Aug. 23, 1902). Parasitic diseases of the skin and scalp are said to be more common among the Jews in eastern Europe than among their non- Jewish neighbors. This is particularly emphasized in reference to scabies and favus (“ plica Polonica” and “ plica Judaica,” for instance). In the United States this is not observed to be the fact when the immigrant Jews are compared with others of the same social status. These diseases being generally observed among the poor and degraded, a reason is found for their frequency among the eastern European Jews. In western Europe and in America, where the social and economic status of the Jews is su-perior, parasitic diseases of the skin are as uncom-mon among them as among others. Psoriasis is also said to be more frequently met Irish . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.45 English . . . . . . . . . . . 206.13 Bohemians . . . . . . . 154.85 French . . . . . . . . . . . 150.65 Germans . . . . . . . . . 141.78 Americans ( white) . 124.14 Italians . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.38 Hungarians ( mostly Jews) . . . . . . . . . . . 51.68 Russians and Poles ( mostly Jews) . . . . 48.34 The lowest mortality is thus seen to be recorded among the Hungarians, Russians, and Poles, who were almost exclusively Jews. The best reason for this is furnished by the fact that the lowest mortal-ity from alcoholism during the same period in New York city was also observed among the Jews— 1 in 100,000 population, as against 31 among the Irish, 10 among the Germans, and 9 among Americans. Körösi’s statistics for Budapest confirm this view. During the period 1886– 90 the mortality from Bright’s disease per 100,000 population was as fol-lows: Catholics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Lutherans . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Calvinists . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Other Protestants . . . . . . 63 Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 It is thus seen that the lowest mortality from Bright’s disease was observed among the Jews. The best explanation of this is evidently the rarity of the abuse by them of alcoholic beverages. Of the other diseases of the organs of genera-tion, syphilis is one from which the Jews suffer but little as compared with their Gentile neighbors. Jonathan Hutchinson states that such is the case in London, England, where at the Metropolitan Free Hospital, in the Jews’ quarter, in 1854 the pro-portion of Jews to Christians among the outdoor patients was nearly as 1 to 3, yet the ratio of cas-es of syphilis among the former to those among the latter was only as 1 to 15. Jacobs also reports that under Cohen’s service at the Metropolitan Free Hospital during 1882 and 1883 the percentage of syphilis was as follows: Diseases of the Skin. Morbidity Mordecai Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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