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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 392 kept in horns (“ keren”), but later in flasks and jars. It became an object of luxury, and typified wealth and fertility, while its smoothness metaphorically denoted flattery. In the mishnaic period there were many varie-ties of oil ( Tan., Beha‘ aloteka, ed. Buber, begin-ning), from sesame, radishes, nuts, colocynths, and the castor- oil plant ( Shab. ii. 1– 2; ib. Gemara 26a; Yer. Shab. 4d; Tosef., Shab. ii. 3– 4). The best olive- oil came from Tekoa ( probably the Galilean city), Giscala in Galilee, and Regeb in Peræa. Oil was adulterated with the juice of the horn- poppy ( Glaucium corniculatum Curt.); and special cau-tion was necessary in buying it from the women of upper Galilee, although it might be purchased from children and slaves if they did not bring it secret-ly. The best season for its sale was summer, al-though it was to be had at all times. The merchant was required to wash his measures once a week in order to maintain their accuracy. Oil can not be used alone for food, but it is an invaluable adjunct in cooking, and is indispensa-ble in the case of the Passover lamb. All manner of foods and drinks are prepared with its aid, and according to a haggadah ( Bacher, “ Ag. Pal. Amor.” i. 444), the manna tasted like oil to the children of Israel ( comp. Num. xviii. 8) and like food of meal, oil, and honey to the sick. While the various sorts of oil enumerated above were used for illuminating purposes, R. Tarfon per-mitted only olive- oil for the festal lights on the Sabbath. Not only was oil employed for massage, in which respect its use was regarded as a pleas-ure forbidden during seasons of fasting and mo-urning, but it was also highly valued as a hygienic agency, especially in the case of wounds and erup-tions, and as a gargle ( Yoma viii. 1; ib. Gemara 76b). In ceremonial usage it found its most impor-tant application in ANOINTING, whence the MESSIAH received his title. Perfumed oil was also well known. The best was that which was mixed with balsam, while other varieties were of sesame- oil with various perfumes, including that of the rose. The holy oil of anointing, which could not be used for any profane purpose, was made by Moses in the desert, and was kept in the Holy of Holies, serving miraculously for the anointing of the Tab-ernacle and of all high priests and kings. Its place was taken in the Second Temple by perfumed oil ( Ker. 5b; Tosef., Yoma, iii. 7). The Halakah frequently mentions oil, which was forbidden to all non- Jews from the time of Daniel until the prohibition was officially abrogated by the patriarch Judah II., since the increased produc-tion and the mixed population of Galilee rendered this law a dead letter. Special regulations were connected with the blessing on taking oil, and on the oil of the heave- offering for the priest, the oil of the year of jubilee and of the various tithes, and the oil of sacrifice. In the Haggadah the power and the use of oil are illustrated in many ways, of which the following examples may be quoted: “ Ye shall take olive- oil to light the Temple as an atonement for your souls, which are like to lamps; not for my sake” ( Bacher, “ Ag. Pal. Amor.” ii. 466). “ The yoke of Sennacher-ib broke because of the oil which Hezekiah had lighted in the schools” ( ib. p. 263). “ As perfumed oil yields all manner of fragrance, so the Scrip-tures yield all manner of interpretations” ( Cant. R. iv. 10). Korah regarded himself as a “ son of oil” ( øäöé ïá), and as such destined to attain to the highest rank (“ Ag. Pal. Amor.” p. 370). The “ sons of oil” are generally the scholars of Palestine ( ib. p. 223). The oil ( A. V. “ ointment”) of Cant. i. 3 is the light of redemption; and the verse “ let thy head lack no ointment” ( Eccl. ix. 8) refers to the honor conferred by the study of the Law ( Bacher, “ Ag. Tan.” ii. 516); a single sin outweighs many of the most varied deeds of righteousness as a dead fly defiles fragrant ointment ( ib. i. 413). E. G. H. I. LÖ. OINTMENT. See ANOINTMENT. OKBARA AND OKBARITES. See MESHWI AL-‘ UKBARI. OKLAH WE- OKLAH: Old Masoretic work in which the notices and rules of the Masorah are col-lected; it consists of groups of rare words or of certain peculiarities of the text arranged either al-phabetically, or in the order of the books of the Bible, or according to some other principle, and contains also brief rules and notes on various phe-nomena found in the original text of the Bible. This work, whose author is unknown, takes its ti-tle from the first two words of the opening pas-sage, which is an alphabetical list of words occur-ring only twice in the Bible, in one passage with-out the prefixed waw and in the other with it, the first of these pairs of words being “ oklah” ( I Sam. i. 9) and “ we- oklah” ( Gen. xxvii. 19). The book is first mentioned by Abu al- Walid ibn Janah, not only in his lexicon ( article êìä), but even in his first work ( see “ Opuscules,” ed. Deren-bourg, p. 57). Ibn Janah there calls it “ Masoret Oklah we- Oklah,” and designates it as the most correct book on the Masorah. It is quoted, howev-er, as early as the tenth century by the Karaite lex-icographer David b. Abraham under the ( Arabic) title of “ The Great Masorah” ( see “ Journal Asia-tique,” 1862, p. 139), and it is referred to as the “ Masoret ha- Gedolah” by Rashi and his grandson R. Jacob Tam ( see “ Monatsschrift,” 1887, pp. 23 et seq.). It is clear, furthermore, from references in manuscripts that R. Gershom b. Judah, the “ Light of the Exile” ( d. 1040), made a copy of this “ great Masorah” ( i. e., the “ Sefer Oklah we- Oklah”), and another transcript was made in the twelfth centu-ry by R. Menahem of Joigny. Graetz misinterpret-ed the first reference to mean that R. Gershom wrote the book ( ib. pp. 18 et seq., 299 et seq.), but by Gershom’s time this work had long been known and highly valued in Spain, as the quotation from Ibn Janah shows. In the thirteenth century David Kimhi mentioned the work ( ib. p. 21), and in the fourteenth century a copy was taken from Catalo-nia to Venice ( ìb. p. 301). When Jacob b. Hayyim was editing the Masorah for the Bomberg edition of the Bible ( 1524– 25), he borrowed most of the material for the “ Masorah Finalis” from the “ Sefer Oklah we- Oklah.” Elijah Levita also used the work in his Masoretic studies, Oil OliphantAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 392 kept in horns (“ keren”), but later in flasks and jars. It became an object of luxury, and typified wealth and fertility, while its smoothness metaphorically denoted flattery. In the mishnaic period there were many varie-ties of oil ( Tan., Beha‘ aloteka, ed. Buber, begin-ning), from sesame, radishes, nuts, colocynths, and the castor- oil plant ( Shab. ii. 1– 2; ib. Gemara 26a; Yer. Shab. 4d; Tosef., Shab. ii. 3– 4). The best olive- oil came from Tekoa ( probably the Galilean city), Giscala in Galilee, and Regeb in Peræa. Oil was adulterated with the juice of the horn- poppy ( Glaucium corniculatum Curt.); and special cau-tion was necessary in buying it from the women of upper Galilee, although it might be purchased from children and slaves if they did not bring it secret-ly. The best season for its sale was summer, al-though it was to be had at all times. The merchant was required to wash his measures once a week in order to maintain their accuracy. Oil can not be used alone for food, but it is an invaluable adjunct in cooking, and is indispensa-ble in the case of the Passover lamb. All manner of foods and drinks are prepared with its aid, and according to a haggadah ( Bacher, “ Ag. Pal. Amor.” i. 444), the manna tasted like oil to the children of Israel ( comp. Num. xviii. 8) and like food of meal, oil, and honey to the sick. While the various sorts of oil enumerated above were used for illuminating purposes, R. Tarfon per-mitted only olive- oil for the festal lights on the Sabbath. Not only was oil employed for massage, in which respect its use was regarded as a pleas-ure forbidden during seasons of fasting and mo-urning, but it was also highly valued as a hygienic agency, especially in the case of wounds and erup-tions, and as a gargle ( Yoma viii. 1; ib. Gemara 76b). In ceremonial usage it found its most impor-tant application in ANOINTING, whence the MESSIAH received his title. Perfumed oil was also well known. The best was that which was mixed with balsam, while other varieties were of sesame- oil with various perfumes, including that of the rose. The holy oil of anointing, which could not be used for any profane purpose, was made by Moses in the desert, and was kept in the Holy of Holies, serving miraculously for the anointing of the Tab-ernacle and of all high priests and kings. Its place was taken in the Second Temple by perfumed oil ( Ker. 5b; Tosef., Yoma, iii. 7). The Halakah frequently mentions oil, which was forbidden to all non- Jews from the time of Daniel until the prohibition was officially abrogated by the patriarch Judah II., since the increased produc-tion and the mixed population of Galilee rendered this law a dead letter. Special regulations were connected with the blessing on taking oil, and on the oil of the heave- offering for the priest, the oil of the year of jubilee and of the various tithes, and the oil of sacrifice. In the Haggadah the power and the use of oil are illustrated in many ways, of which the following examples may be quoted: “ Ye shall take olive- oil to light the Temple as an atonement for your souls, which are like to lamps; not for my sake” ( Bacher, “ Ag. Pal. Amor.” ii. 466). “ The yoke of Sennacher-ib broke because of the oil which Hezekiah had lighted in the schools” ( ib. p. 263). “ As perfumed oil yields all manner of fragrance, so the Scrip-tures yield all manner of interpretations” ( Cant. R. iv. 10). Korah regarded himself as a “ son of oil” ( øäöé ïá), and as such destined to attain to the highest rank (“ Ag. Pal. Amor.” p. 370). The “ sons of oil” are generally the scholars of Palestine ( ib. p. 223). The oil ( A. V. “ ointment”) of Cant. i. 3 is the light of redemption; and the verse “ let thy head lack no ointment” ( Eccl. ix. 8) refers to the honor conferred by the study of the Law ( Bacher, “ Ag. Tan.” ii. 516); a single sin outweighs many of the most varied deeds of righteousness as a dead fly defiles fragrant ointment ( ib. i. 413). E. G. H. I. LÖ. OINTMENT. See ANOINTMENT. OKBARA AND OKBARITES. See MESHWI AL-‘ UKBARI. OKLAH WE- OKLAH: Old Masoretic work in which the notices and rules of the Masorah are col-lected; it consists of groups of rare words or of certain peculiarities of the text arranged either al-phabetically, or in the order of the books of the Bible, or according to some other principle, and contains also brief rules and notes on various phe-nomena found in the original text of the Bible. This work, whose author is unknown, takes its ti-tle from the first two words of the opening pas-sage, which is an alphabetical list of words occur-ring only twice in the Bible, in one passage with-out the prefixed waw and in the other with it, the first of these pairs of words being “ oklah” ( I Sam. i. 9) and “ we- oklah” ( Gen. xxvii. 19). The book is first mentioned by Abu al- Walid ibn Janah, not only in his lexicon ( article êìä), but even in his first work ( see “ Opuscules,” ed. Deren-bourg, p. 57). Ibn Janah there calls it “ Masoret Oklah we- Oklah,” and designates it as the most correct book on the Masorah. It is quoted, howev-er, as early as the tenth century by the Karaite lex-icographer David b. Abraham under the ( Arabic) title of “ The Great Masorah” ( see “ Journal Asia-tique,” 1862, p. 139), and it is referred to as the “ Masoret ha- Gedolah” by Rashi and his grandson R. Jacob Tam ( see “ Monatsschrift,” 1887, pp. 23 et seq.). It is clear, furthermore, from references in manuscripts that R. Gershom b. Judah, the “ Light of the Exile” ( d. 1040), made a copy of this “ great Masorah” ( i. e., the “ Sefer Oklah we- Oklah”), and another transcript was made in the twelfth centu-ry by R. Menahem of Joigny. Graetz misinterpret-ed the first reference to mean that R. Gershom wrote the book ( ib. pp. 18 et seq., 299 et seq.), but by Gershom’s time this work had long been known and highly valued in Spain, as the quotation from Ibn Janah shows. In the thirteenth century David Kimhi mentioned the work ( ib. p. 21), and in the fourteenth century a copy was taken from Catalo-nia to Venice ( ìb. p. 301). When Jacob b. Hayyim was editing the Masorah for the Bomberg edition of the Bible ( 1524– 25), he borrowed most of the material for the “ Masorah Finalis” from the “ Sefer Oklah we- Oklah.” Elijah Levita also used the work in his Masoretic studies, Oil Oliphant Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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