Varda Books



 View book pages:
 Buy this book:
  eBookshuk
  




387 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by 0
387 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA strengthening of the Jewish consciousness and sense of political freedom. Its propaganda for the establishment of a Jewish theological seminary in Vienna, as well as its movement for the promotion of Hebrew studies in the religious schools, was crowned with signal success. In 1895 the Union gave the impulse to the crea-tion of a central body for protection and defense, composed of representatives of the larger Austro- Jewish congregations. This Allgemeiner Israeli-tischer Gemeindebund did not receive the sanction of the government until it had changed its consti-tution; and it has not yet accomplished very much. The anti- Semitic riots and the charges of ritual murder which arose in 1896 throughout Austria, especially in Bohemia, in connection with the reactionary tendency in government circles found the Union well prepared for defense. It kept the government and the press constantly informed of the state of affairs and appealed to them for help. It organized its own “ Rechtschutz- Bureau,” which gives gratuitous legal aid to all Jews whose rights have been infringed or who have been unjustly per-secuted for their religion; it repels false accusations against the whole body of Jews, and wards off ille-gal attacks. In the year 1898 the Union, moved by the terrible sufferings of the Jews in Galicia, instituted a thorough investigation of the condition of their coreligionists there. One result of this action of the society, combined with that of other allied bodies, was the foundation of the Galizischer Hilfsverein, which aims at raising the moral and material standard of the Jewish population of that province. The society has published since 1888 a monthly magazine, under the title “ Mittheilungen der Oes-terreichisch- Israelitisehen Union,” for the propa-gation of its ideas. Since 1892 it has published also the “ Kalender für Israeliten,” which ranks among the best Jewish year- books now issued, especially on account of its literary department and its ex-haustive list of the Jewish congregations of Aus-tria and their officers. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Kalender für Israeliten, passim; Oester- reichische Wochenschrift, passim. D. A. KI. OFAN ( OFANNIM): Name by which is known that part of the morning prayer in which the praise of the Lord by the heavenly host is de-scribed. This passage begins with the words “ The ofannim [ wheels] and the holy living creatures with great uproar raise themselves up; facing the Seraphim they say, ‘ Praised be the glory of the Lord from his place.’” The idea of the passage is based on Ezekiel’s vision ( ch. i.). The piyyut in-serted in this passage expatiates on the theme of the heavenly host praising the Lord. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zunz, Literaturgesch. D. OFEN. See BUDAPEST. OFFENBACH: Town in the province of Star-kenburg in the grand duchy of Hesse. When FET-TMILCH caused the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfort- on- the- Main on Aug. 22, 1614, they pro-ceeded up the river with an armed escort; but, al-though they were met with hostile demonstrations at the various bridges, Offenbach was the only place which opened fire upon them, with what re-sults is not known. The town appears in Jewish history for the second time at the end of the eight-eenth century and at the beginning of the nine-teenth in connection with the settlement there in 1786 of Jacob FRANK. He succeeded in buying the castle from the reigning prince Wolfgang Ernst of Homburg- Birstein, who was overwhelmed by debt. In this palace, which was surrounded by a strong wall, Frank, assuming the title of “ Baron of Offen-bach,” kept his court; and here he died ( Dec. 10, 1791), being buried in the cemetery of Offenbach with great pomp. For sixteen years Offenbach maintained its importance for the Polish Jews; for from it Frank’s children, Joseph Roch and Eve, sent the “ red letters” to various communities, while Frank’s palace and grave formed objects of pilgrim-age for wealthy and influential Jews from the East. After Frank’s death and when the influx of mon-ey had ceased, the city itself suffered; for it was found that not only those citizens who had contrib-uted money directly to Frank, but also the work-men who had performed the necessary services about his “ court,” had been obliged to profess themselves adherents of his doctrine. Only a pub-lic announcement on the part of his relatives that they would shortly pay his debts succeeded in pac-ifying the city. When, however, new complaints arose in 1817, Archduke Charles was obliged to announce that he would go in person to Offenbach to make a thorough investigation, whereupon Eve, Frank’s daughter, either was spirited away or died suddenly. This episode brought great distress upon the city, since the Frankists had left debts behind them everywhere. In his later years Wolf BREIDEN-BACH ( 1751– 1829) was a citizen of Offenbach. He was the first to induce the Duke of Isenburg- Birst-ein to abolish the Jewish “ Leibzoll.” The present ( 1904) community of Offenbach, whose rabbi is Dr. J. Goldschmidt, contains 1,212 Jews out of a population approximating 60,000. It possesses, in addition to the synagogue, a ladies’ club, a fraternity, a Jewish hospital, and a hebra kaddisha. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Schenk Rink, Die Polen in Offenbach- am- Main, Frankfort- on- the- Main, 1866; idem, Die Frankistensekte in Offen-bach, in Frankfurter Familienblätter, 1868, pp. 1 et seq.; idem, Die Polen in Offenbach, in Frankfurter Journal, 1868, Supple-ment, pp. 31 et seq.; Grätz, Frank und die Frankisten, Breslau, 1868; Back, in Monatsschrift, 1877, pp. 189– 192, 232– 240, 410– 420; Kracauer, in Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland, iv. 350. J. S. O. OFFENBACH, JACQUES: Creator of French burlesque opera; born at Cologne June 21, 1819; died at Paris Oct. 5, 1880. He was a son of Judah Offenbach, cantor of the Jewish congregation at Cologne. Offenbach went to Paris at the age of thir-teen, and in Nov., 1833, entered the Conservatoire, where he studied violoncello under Vaslin; shortly afterward he became a member of the orchestra of the Opéra Comique. In 1841 he gave a series of con-certs consisting mainly of his own compositions and of chansonettes to parodies of La Fontaine, written for the vaudeville stage. As a soloist, how-ever, he was successful neither in France nor in Oels OffenbachAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

Zoom in  zoom  Zoom out
  << Topic >>             |<   <<    Page       >>   >|  
387 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA strengthening of the Jewish consciousness and sense of political freedom. Its propaganda for the establishment of a Jewish theological seminary in Vienna, as well as its movement for the promotion of Hebrew studies in the religious schools, was crowned with signal success. In 1895 the Union gave the impulse to the crea-tion of a central body for protection and defense, composed of representatives of the larger Austro- Jewish congregations. This Allgemeiner Israeli-tischer Gemeindebund did not receive the sanction of the government until it had changed its consti-tution; and it has not yet accomplished very much. The anti- Semitic riots and the charges of ritual murder which arose in 1896 throughout Austria, especially in Bohemia, in connection with the reactionary tendency in government circles found the Union well prepared for defense. It kept the government and the press constantly informed of the state of affairs and appealed to them for help. It organized its own “ Rechtschutz- Bureau,” which gives gratuitous legal aid to all Jews whose rights have been infringed or who have been unjustly per-secuted for their religion; it repels false accusations against the whole body of Jews, and wards off ille-gal attacks. In the year 1898 the Union, moved by the terrible sufferings of the Jews in Galicia, instituted a thorough investigation of the condition of their coreligionists there. One result of this action of the society, combined with that of other allied bodies, was the foundation of the Galizischer Hilfsverein, which aims at raising the moral and material standard of the Jewish population of that province. The society has published since 1888 a monthly magazine, under the title “ Mittheilungen der Oes-terreichisch- Israelitisehen Union,” for the propa-gation of its ideas. Since 1892 it has published also the “ Kalender für Israeliten,” which ranks among the best Jewish year- books now issued, especially on account of its literary department and its ex-haustive list of the Jewish congregations of Aus-tria and their officers. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Kalender für Israeliten, passim; Oester- reichische Wochenschrift, passim. D. A. KI. OFAN ( OFANNIM): Name by which is known that part of the morning prayer in which the praise of the Lord by the heavenly host is de-scribed. This passage begins with the words “ The ofannim [ wheels] and the holy living creatures with great uproar raise themselves up; facing the Seraphim they say, ‘ Praised be the glory of the Lord from his place.’” The idea of the passage is based on Ezekiel’s vision ( ch. i.). The piyyut in-serted in this passage expatiates on the theme of the heavenly host praising the Lord. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zunz, Literaturgesch. D. OFEN. See BUDAPEST. OFFENBACH: Town in the province of Star-kenburg in the grand duchy of Hesse. When FET-TMILCH caused the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfort- on- the- Main on Aug. 22, 1614, they pro-ceeded up the river with an armed escort; but, al-though they were met with hostile demonstrations at the various bridges, Offenbach was the only place which opened fire upon them, with what re-sults is not known. The town appears in Jewish history for the second time at the end of the eight-eenth century and at the beginning of the nine-teenth in connection with the settlement there in 1786 of Jacob FRANK. He succeeded in buying the castle from the reigning prince Wolfgang Ernst of Homburg- Birstein, who was overwhelmed by debt. In this palace, which was surrounded by a strong wall, Frank, assuming the title of “ Baron of Offen-bach,” kept his court; and here he died ( Dec. 10, 1791), being buried in the cemetery of Offenbach with great pomp. For sixteen years Offenbach maintained its importance for the Polish Jews; for from it Frank’s children, Joseph Roch and Eve, sent the “ red letters” to various communities, while Frank’s palace and grave formed objects of pilgrim-age for wealthy and influential Jews from the East. After Frank’s death and when the influx of mon-ey had ceased, the city itself suffered; for it was found that not only those citizens who had contrib-uted money directly to Frank, but also the work-men who had performed the necessary services about his “ court,” had been obliged to profess themselves adherents of his doctrine. Only a pub-lic announcement on the part of his relatives that they would shortly pay his debts succeeded in pac-ifying the city. When, however, new complaints arose in 1817, Archduke Charles was obliged to announce that he would go in person to Offenbach to make a thorough investigation, whereupon Eve, Frank’s daughter, either was spirited away or died suddenly. This episode brought great distress upon the city, since the Frankists had left debts behind them everywhere. In his later years Wolf BREIDEN-BACH ( 1751– 1829) was a citizen of Offenbach. He was the first to induce the Duke of Isenburg- Birst-ein to abolish the Jewish “ Leibzoll.” The present ( 1904) community of Offenbach, whose rabbi is Dr. J. Goldschmidt, contains 1,212 Jews out of a population approximating 60,000. It possesses, in addition to the synagogue, a ladies’ club, a fraternity, a Jewish hospital, and a hebra kaddisha. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Schenk Rink, Die Polen in Offenbach- am- Main, Frankfort- on- the- Main, 1866; idem, Die Frankistensekte in Offen-bach, in Frankfurter Familienblätter, 1868, pp. 1 et seq.; idem, Die Polen in Offenbach, in Frankfurter Journal, 1868, Supple-ment, pp. 31 et seq.; Grätz, Frank und die Frankisten, Breslau, 1868; Back, in Monatsschrift, 1877, pp. 189– 192, 232– 240, 410– 420; Kracauer, in Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland, iv. 350. J. S. O. OFFENBACH, JACQUES: Creator of French burlesque opera; born at Cologne June 21, 1819; died at Paris Oct. 5, 1880. He was a son of Judah Offenbach, cantor of the Jewish congregation at Cologne. Offenbach went to Paris at the age of thir-teen, and in Nov., 1833, entered the Conservatoire, where he studied violoncello under Vaslin; shortly afterward he became a member of the orchestra of the Opéra Comique. In 1841 he gave a series of con-certs consisting mainly of his own compositions and of chansonettes to parodies of La Fontaine, written for the vaudeville stage. As a soloist, how-ever, he was successful neither in France nor in Oels Offenbach Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
Zoom in  zoom  Zoom out
  << Topic >>             |<   <<    Page       >>   >|  

Varda Books - 9ofaset


 Already viewed books:
The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9


TANAKH - INTERACTIVE HEBREW BIBLE