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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 364 fourth “ kelifah,” called “ nogah,” to the brain ( Hay-yim Vital, “‘ Ez Hayyim,” hekal vii., gate 9, ch. ii.). For other symbolic applications of the nut by the cabalists see Eleazar of Worms, “ Sha‘ are ha- Sod weha- Yihud weha- Emunah” (“ Sha‘ ar ha- Kabod”). The Romans considered nuts as an emblem of fertility in both man and beast; and therefore they used to strew nuts before the bride-groom and bride. This custom was adopted by the Jews in the time of the Talmudists ( Ber. 50b), and in Polish towns it continues up to the present time. On the Sabbath which precedes the wedding, when the bridegroom is called up to recite a part of the weekly lesson in the synagogue the women from their gallery throw down nuts, which are picked up by the children. It was also the custom to distrib-ute nuts among the children on the eve of the Feast of the Passover, in order that they might not fall asleep and to arouse in them a desire to ques-tion ( Pes. 109a). This custom has developed into the general one of playing games with nuts, even among grown persons, during the whole feast. As the nut symbolizes the children of Israel, it is one of the ingredients of the “ haroset” ( Isserles, in Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 473, 5). BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Duschak, Zur Botanik des Talmud, p. 23; Lampron-ti, Pahad Yizhak, s. v. íéæåâà; s. Rubin, Segullot ha- Zemahim we- Ototam, p. 13, Cracow, 1898. A. M. SEL. NYÁRI: ALEXANDER: Hungarian art critic; born Aug.. 28, 1861, at Zala- Egersczeg; educated at Vienna under Hansen, receiving his diploma as ar-chitect in 1884. In the following year he went to Paris and thence to Berlin, where he studied phi-losophy and the history of art. He received his de-gree of Ph. D. from the University of Leipsic in 1891. In 1889 Nyári was commissioned by his govern-ment to travel through Hungary in search of speci-mens of the art of the Italian Renaissance dating from the time of King Matthias. Two years later he was appointed assistant in the archeological di-vision of the National Museum and docent in the history of art in the School of Technology at Buda-pest. Commissioned by Count Csáky, minister of public worship and instruction, to search for monuments of art relating to Hungary, he traveled through Poland and Saxony ( 1892), Germany ( 1893), Italy and France ( 1894), and England, Hol-land, Servia, and Rumania ( 1895). In the course of these investigations he discovered a number of unknown works of the famous Hungarian painter Karl Brocky, who had been court painter to Queen Victoria. In 1894 Nyári was appointed custodian of the National Gallery of Paintings. Nyári’s two chief works, aside from numerous smaller contributions to the history of art, are: “ Der Portraitmaler Johann Kupetzky, Sein Leben und Seine Werke” ( Leipsic, 1889) and “ A Kassai Székesegyház” ( Budapest, 1896; in German also), on the Cathedral of Kaschan. Nyári is a convert to Christianity. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pallas Lex. S. L. V. NYONS: Town in the ancient province of Dau-phiné, France. A Jewish community must have ex-isted there before the fourteenth century; for a document in Latin of the year 1322 speaks of the “ old Jews” and of “ the newly arrived Hebrews.” The last- mentioned were Jews who had sought ref-uge in Nyons when expelled from the Comtat- Ven-aissin by Pope John XXII. Two of them, David de Hyères and David de Moras, had great influence with the dauphin Humbert II. in 1338 and 1346 ( Prudhomme, “ Les Juifs en Dauphiné,” pp. 18, 25). Between 1270 and 1343 there lived in Nyons R. Isaac ben Mordecai, called “ Maestro Petit,” author of the “ Azharot,” enumerations in verse of the six hundred and thirteen Mosaic laws, which are recit-ed in the congregations of the Comtat at the Feast of Weeks ( Shabu‘ ot). Isaac wrote also commentar-ies on the Talmud, and corresponded with the most celebrated rabbis of the south of France ( Gross, “ Gallia Judaica,” p. 387). Together with Petit is mentioned another scholar of Nyons, R. Hayyim of Vienne, a rabbinical authority ( Gross, l. c. p. 194). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gross and Prudhomme as above. G. S. K. In Cabalis-tic Sym-bolism. O OAK AND TEREBINTH: The Hebrew terms calling for consideration here are: “ elah” ( Gen. xxxv. 4; Judges vi. 11, 19, and elsewhere); “ el” ( only in the plural form “ elim”; Isa. i. 29, lvii. 5, A. V. “ idols,” R. V. “ oaks”; lxi. 3, A. V. “ trees”); “ elon” ( Gen. xii. 6, A. V. “ plain,” R. V. “ oak”; xiii. 18); “ al-lah” ( Josh. xxiv. 26, E. V. “ oak”); and “ allon” ( Gen. xxxv. 8; Isa. ii. 13, xliv. 14, and often E. V. “ oak”). All these terms may have originally denoted large, strong trees in general ( comp. the Latin robur), comprising both the oak and the terebinth, which are similar in outward appearance. But “ elah” ( which in Isa. vi. 13 and Hos. iv. 13 is distinguished from “ allon”) and its cognates “ elon” and “ elim” are assumed to mean the terebinth, while “ allon” ( which is repeatedly connected with Bashan [ Isa. ii. 13; Ezek. xxvii. 6; Zech. xi. 2], a district famous for its oaks) and “ allah” are assumed to denote the oak. Both the oak and the terebinth offered favorite resorts for religious practises ( Isa. i. 29, lvii. 5; Ezek. vi. 13; Hos. iv. 13), and were associated with theophanies ( Judges vi. 11; comp. Gen. xii. 6; Judg-es ix. 37). By reason of their striking appearance and their longevity they served also as topo-graphical landmarks ( Gen. xxxv. 8; Judges iv. 11, vi. 11, ix. 6; I Sam. x. 3, xvii. 2). The custom of bur-ial beneath these trees is mentioned ( Gen. xxxv. 8; Nyári OathAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 364 fourth “ kelifah,” called “ nogah,” to the brain ( Hay-yim Vital, “‘ Ez Hayyim,” hekal vii., gate 9, ch. ii.). For other symbolic applications of the nut by the cabalists see Eleazar of Worms, “ Sha‘ are ha- Sod weha- Yihud weha- Emunah” (“ Sha‘ ar ha- Kabod”). The Romans considered nuts as an emblem of fertility in both man and beast; and therefore they used to strew nuts before the bride-groom and bride. This custom was adopted by the Jews in the time of the Talmudists ( Ber. 50b), and in Polish towns it continues up to the present time. On the Sabbath which precedes the wedding, when the bridegroom is called up to recite a part of the weekly lesson in the synagogue the women from their gallery throw down nuts, which are picked up by the children. It was also the custom to distrib-ute nuts among the children on the eve of the Feast of the Passover, in order that they might not fall asleep and to arouse in them a desire to ques-tion ( Pes. 109a). This custom has developed into the general one of playing games with nuts, even among grown persons, during the whole feast. As the nut symbolizes the children of Israel, it is one of the ingredients of the “ haroset” ( Isserles, in Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 473, 5). BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Duschak, Zur Botanik des Talmud, p. 23; Lampron-ti, Pahad Yizhak, s. v. íéæåâà; s. Rubin, Segullot ha- Zemahim we- Ototam, p. 13, Cracow, 1898. A. M. SEL. NYÁRI: ALEXANDER: Hungarian art critic; born Aug.. 28, 1861, at Zala- Egersczeg; educated at Vienna under Hansen, receiving his diploma as ar-chitect in 1884. In the following year he went to Paris and thence to Berlin, where he studied phi-losophy and the history of art. He received his de-gree of Ph. D. from the University of Leipsic in 1891. In 1889 Nyári was commissioned by his govern-ment to travel through Hungary in search of speci-mens of the art of the Italian Renaissance dating from the time of King Matthias. Two years later he was appointed assistant in the archeological di-vision of the National Museum and docent in the history of art in the School of Technology at Buda-pest. Commissioned by Count Csáky, minister of public worship and instruction, to search for monuments of art relating to Hungary, he traveled through Poland and Saxony ( 1892), Germany ( 1893), Italy and France ( 1894), and England, Hol-land, Servia, and Rumania ( 1895). In the course of these investigations he discovered a number of unknown works of the famous Hungarian painter Karl Brocky, who had been court painter to Queen Victoria. In 1894 Nyári was appointed custodian of the National Gallery of Paintings. Nyári’s two chief works, aside from numerous smaller contributions to the history of art, are: “ Der Portraitmaler Johann Kupetzky, Sein Leben und Seine Werke” ( Leipsic, 1889) and “ A Kassai Székesegyház” ( Budapest, 1896; in German also), on the Cathedral of Kaschan. Nyári is a convert to Christianity. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pallas Lex. S. L. V. NYONS: Town in the ancient province of Dau-phiné, France. A Jewish community must have ex-isted there before the fourteenth century; for a document in Latin of the year 1322 speaks of the “ old Jews” and of “ the newly arrived Hebrews.” The last- mentioned were Jews who had sought ref-uge in Nyons when expelled from the Comtat- Ven-aissin by Pope John XXII. Two of them, David de Hyères and David de Moras, had great influence with the dauphin Humbert II. in 1338 and 1346 ( Prudhomme, “ Les Juifs en Dauphiné,” pp. 18, 25). Between 1270 and 1343 there lived in Nyons R. Isaac ben Mordecai, called “ Maestro Petit,” author of the “ Azharot,” enumerations in verse of the six hundred and thirteen Mosaic laws, which are recit-ed in the congregations of the Comtat at the Feast of Weeks ( Shabu‘ ot). Isaac wrote also commentar-ies on the Talmud, and corresponded with the most celebrated rabbis of the south of France ( Gross, “ Gallia Judaica,” p. 387). Together with Petit is mentioned another scholar of Nyons, R. Hayyim of Vienne, a rabbinical authority ( Gross, l. c. p. 194). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gross and Prudhomme as above. G. S. K. In Cabalis-tic Sym-bolism. O OAK AND TEREBINTH: The Hebrew terms calling for consideration here are: “ elah” ( Gen. xxxv. 4; Judges vi. 11, 19, and elsewhere); “ el” ( only in the plural form “ elim”; Isa. i. 29, lvii. 5, A. V. “ idols,” R. V. “ oaks”; lxi. 3, A. V. “ trees”); “ elon” ( Gen. xii. 6, A. V. “ plain,” R. V. “ oak”; xiii. 18); “ al-lah” ( Josh. xxiv. 26, E. V. “ oak”); and “ allon” ( Gen. xxxv. 8; Isa. ii. 13, xliv. 14, and often E. V. “ oak”). All these terms may have originally denoted large, strong trees in general ( comp. the Latin robur), comprising both the oak and the terebinth, which are similar in outward appearance. But “ elah” ( which in Isa. vi. 13 and Hos. iv. 13 is distinguished from “ allon”) and its cognates “ elon” and “ elim” are assumed to mean the terebinth, while “ allon” ( which is repeatedly connected with Bashan [ Isa. ii. 13; Ezek. xxvii. 6; Zech. xi. 2], a district famous for its oaks) and “ allah” are assumed to denote the oak. Both the oak and the terebinth offered favorite resorts for religious practises ( Isa. i. 29, lvii. 5; Ezek. vi. 13; Hos. iv. 13), and were associated with theophanies ( Judges vi. 11; comp. Gen. xii. 6; Judg-es ix. 37). By reason of their striking appearance and their longevity they served also as topo-graphical landmarks ( Gen. xxxv. 8; Judges iv. 11, vi. 11, ix. 6; I Sam. x. 3, xvii. 2). The custom of bur-ial beneath these trees is mentioned ( Gen. xxxv. 8; Nyári Oath Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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