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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 318 temporaries could compare ( ib. No. 375), and that he was, moreover, highly respected and famous even in non- Jewish circles ( ib. No. 447). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Conforte, Kore ha- Dorot, p. 26 a, b; Azulai, Shem ha- Gedolim, s. v.; Michael, Or ha- Hayyim, No. 1132; Weiss, Dor, v. 135– 142; Grätz, Gesch. vii. 361– 362; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2064– 2066; Fürst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 37– 38. E. C. J. Z. L. NISSIM ( THE ELDER) IBN SHAHIN. See JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN. NITER ( Hebrew, “ nether”): The niter of the an-cients was a mineral alkaline salt, carbonate of soda, found in great quantities in Egypt. Natron Lake and Natron Valley derive their name from its presence in them; and they are still exploited for niter as they were in ancient times. In Egypt much niter was used of old for the embalming of bodies, and it was also known to the ancients that in smelting ore, niter quickened the process of flux. In the Old Testament niter is mentioned as a cleansing agent ( Jer. ii. 22). It was also frequently employed for medicinal purposes. In Prov. xxv. 20 the effect of songs on a heavy heart is compared to the action of “ vinegar upon niter.” This is usual-ly explained by the fact that niter effervesces when acids are mixed with it. Perhaps, however, the text should be emended; for the Septuagint reads: “ as vinegar on a wound.” E. C. I. BE. NITTAI OF ARBELA: Vice- president of the Sanhedrin under the nasi Joshua b. Perahyah at the time of John Hyrcanus. In Yer. Hag. ii. 76d he is called Mattai of Arbela. Arbela was a city of Galilee not far from Tiberias. No halakot of his are extant, but some of his apothegms have been pre-served which afford a glimpse of his character. They are as follows: “ Withdraw thyself from an evil neighbor; join not thyself unto the wicked; and re-nounce not the hope of retribution” ( Ab. i. 7). These bitter utterances contrast sharply with the gentle maxims of his colleague Joshua b. Perahyah. Nittai seems to have spoken thus after John Hyrcanus had deserted the party of the Pharisees and joined the Sadducees, persecuting his former friends. The phrase “ renounce not the hope of retribution” was intended to comfort the Pharisees with the thought that Hyrcanus himself would not escape punish-ment, while the other two injunctions were de-signed to keep them from joining the Sadducees. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Weiss, Dor, i. 132; Z. Frankel, in Monatsschrift, 1852, pp. 410– 413; idem, Hodegetica in Mischnam, pp. 33– 34, Leipsic, 1859. S. J. Z. L. NITTEL: Judæo- German word for “ Christmas”; derived from the medieval Latin “ Natale Domini” ( see Wetzer and Weite, “ Kirchenlexikon,” vii. 588); Old Latin, “ Dies Natalis”; French, “ Noël.” Moses Isserles speaks of the custom of sending presents on the eighth day after Nittel, which is called New- Year ( Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Yoreh De‘ ah, 148, 12). It was also customary among the Jews to play cards on Nittel night, which was explained as being done in opposition to the solemn celebration of that eve-ning by Christians, while really it was merely a survival of the old German custom of merrymak-ing at this festival ( see Tille, “ Gesch. der Deut-schen Weihnacht,” Leipsic, 1900). D. NIZZA ( äöéð), SOLOMON BEN ISAIAH BEN ELIEZER HAYYIM: Rabbi of Venice in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; equally prominent as sage, Talmudist, and liturgical poet. His father, Isaiah, whom he succeeded, was the author of “ Derek Yashar” ( Venice, 1633), on ethics, and of “ Yesha‘ Yah” ( ib. 1637), a commentary on the Zohar; and his grandfather Eliezer Hayyim, who was rab-bi of Padua ( c. 1600), wrote “ Dammesek Eli‘ ezer.” Many prominent Talmudists corresponded with Nizza and published his decisions in their works; and his approbations (“ haskamot”) were in great demand. He was the teacher of Moses and Gershon Hefez, on the latter of whom he delivered a eulo-gy ( published in “ Yad Haruzim,” 1660). His selihah åøç éîöò éðæçà õáù, in eight rimed stanzas, each of which ends with êéãé àùð, was inserted in the morn-ing service for New- Year’s Day (“ Shaharit”) in the Roman ritual. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Nepi- Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, pp. 326, 327; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 394; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 1386, 2359; Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 444; S. D. Luzzatto, Mebo, Leg-horn, 1856. S. J. S. R. NIZZAHON. See LIPMANN- MÜHLHAUSEN. NO- AMON: Name designating the city of The-bes, in Egypt, and equivalent to “ No, the city of the god Amon”; found in Nah. iii. 8 ( comp. Jer. xlvi. 25, where Amon is spoken of as the god of No). The current form is the later Hebrew pronunciation of the older “ Na.” This is nearly equivalent to the As-syrian “ Ne’,” which is modified from “ Na’” by the influence of the guttural. The word is Egyptian and means the “ city” par excellence. Thebes was the greatest of the ancient Egyptian cities ( observe the repetition of the name in Ezek. xxx. 14– 16). It stood at the very center of the Nile traffic, and was dis-tant about 500 miles by the river from the Mediter-ranean and about 110 miles from the border of Ethi-opia ( Cush), of whose trade it was the emporium. Thebes was originally the capital of the fourth nome of Upper Egypt ( Pathros). Early in the third millennium B. C. it was made the seat of the eleventh dynasty. But it was not until the expulsion of the Hyksos ( about 1570 B. C.) that it became the perma-nent capital. Under the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties it attained the height of its splendor. The most famous kings of Egypt, Thothmes III. and Rameses II., adorned it with magnificent structures, the remains of which now form the principal ruins of Karnak and Luxor. After the establishment of the Ethiopian dynasty the city lost its prestige. Its decline was hastened by its repeated capture by Assurbanipal during the native uprisings against the Assyrian suzerainty ( 667– 663 B. C.). Since the days of the Ptolemies it has been the great ruined city of Egypt. The Targum and Gen. R. ( i, begin-ning), and also Judah ha- Levi, translate No- Amon by Alexandria. BIBLIOGRAPHY: See the bibliography to the article EGYPT, ANCIENT AND BIBLICAL, in JEW. ENCYC. v. 60 ( especially works on its history and art); Baedeker, Egypt. E. C. J. F. MCC. NOACHIAN LAWS. See LAWS, NOACHIAN. NOAH.— Biblical Data: Son of Lamech and the ninth in descent from Adam. In the midst ofNissim ibn  Shahin NoahAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben  | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 318 temporaries could compare ( ib. No. 375), and that he was, moreover, highly respected and famous even in non- Jewish circles ( ib. No. 447). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Conforte, Kore ha- Dorot, p. 26 a, b; Azulai, Shem ha- Gedolim, s. v.; Michael, Or ha- Hayyim, No. 1132; Weiss, Dor, v. 135– 142; Grätz, Gesch. vii. 361– 362; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2064– 2066; Fürst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 37– 38. E. C. J. Z. L. NISSIM ( THE ELDER) IBN SHAHIN. See JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN SHAHIN. NITER ( Hebrew, “ nether”): The niter of the an-cients was a mineral alkaline salt, carbonate of soda, found in great quantities in Egypt. Natron Lake and Natron Valley derive their name from its presence in them; and they are still exploited for niter as they were in ancient times. In Egypt much niter was used of old for the embalming of bodies, and it was also known to the ancients that in smelting ore, niter quickened the process of flux. In the Old Testament niter is mentioned as a cleansing agent ( Jer. ii. 22). It was also frequently employed for medicinal purposes. In Prov. xxv. 20 the effect of songs on a heavy heart is compared to the action of “ vinegar upon niter.” This is usual-ly explained by the fact that niter effervesces when acids are mixed with it. Perhaps, however, the text should be emended; for the Septuagint reads: “ as vinegar on a wound.” E. C. I. BE. NITTAI OF ARBELA: Vice- president of the Sanhedrin under the nasi Joshua b. Perahyah at the time of John Hyrcanus. In Yer. Hag. ii. 76d he is called Mattai of Arbela. Arbela was a city of Galilee not far from Tiberias. No halakot of his are extant, but some of his apothegms have been pre-served which afford a glimpse of his character. They are as follows: “ Withdraw thyself from an evil neighbor; join not thyself unto the wicked; and re-nounce not the hope of retribution” ( Ab. i. 7). These bitter utterances contrast sharply with the gentle maxims of his colleague Joshua b. Perahyah. Nittai seems to have spoken thus after John Hyrcanus had deserted the party of the Pharisees and joined the Sadducees, persecuting his former friends. The phrase “ renounce not the hope of retribution” was intended to comfort the Pharisees with the thought that Hyrcanus himself would not escape punish-ment, while the other two injunctions were de-signed to keep them from joining the Sadducees. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Weiss, Dor, i. 132; Z. Frankel, in Monatsschrift, 1852, pp. 410– 413; idem, Hodegetica in Mischnam, pp. 33– 34, Leipsic, 1859. S. J. Z. L. NITTEL: Judæo- German word for “ Christmas”; derived from the medieval Latin “ Natale Domini” ( see Wetzer and Weite, “ Kirchenlexikon,” vii. 588); Old Latin, “ Dies Natalis”; French, “ Noël.” Moses Isserles speaks of the custom of sending presents on the eighth day after Nittel, which is called New- Year ( Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Yoreh De‘ ah, 148, 12). It was also customary among the Jews to play cards on Nittel night, which was explained as being done in opposition to the solemn celebration of that eve-ning by Christians, while really it was merely a survival of the old German custom of merrymak-ing at this festival ( see Tille, “ Gesch. der Deut-schen Weihnacht,” Leipsic, 1900). D. NIZZA ( äöéð), SOLOMON BEN ISAIAH BEN ELIEZER HAYYIM: Rabbi of Venice in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; equally prominent as sage, Talmudist, and liturgical poet. His father, Isaiah, whom he succeeded, was the author of “ Derek Yashar” ( Venice, 1633), on ethics, and of “ Yesha‘ Yah” ( ib. 1637), a commentary on the Zohar; and his grandfather Eliezer Hayyim, who was rab-bi of Padua ( c. 1600), wrote “ Dammesek Eli‘ ezer.” Many prominent Talmudists corresponded with Nizza and published his decisions in their works; and his approbations (“ haskamot”) were in great demand. He was the teacher of Moses and Gershon Hefez, on the latter of whom he delivered a eulo-gy ( published in “ Yad Haruzim,” 1660). His selihah åøç éîöò éðæçà õáù, in eight rimed stanzas, each of which ends with êéãé àùð, was inserted in the morn-ing service for New- Year’s Day (“ Shaharit”) in the Roman ritual. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Nepi- Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Yisrael, pp. 326, 327; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 394; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 1386, 2359; Zunz, Literaturgesch. p. 444; S. D. Luzzatto, Mebo, Leg-horn, 1856. S. J. S. R. NIZZAHON. See LIPMANN- MÜHLHAUSEN. NO- AMON: Name designating the city of The-bes, in Egypt, and equivalent to “ No, the city of the god Amon”; found in Nah. iii. 8 ( comp. Jer. xlvi. 25, where Amon is spoken of as the god of No). The current form is the later Hebrew pronunciation of the older “ Na.” This is nearly equivalent to the As-syrian “ Ne’,” which is modified from “ Na’” by the influence of the guttural. The word is Egyptian and means the “ city” par excellence. Thebes was the greatest of the ancient Egyptian cities ( observe the repetition of the name in Ezek. xxx. 14– 16). It stood at the very center of the Nile traffic, and was dis-tant about 500 miles by the river from the Mediter-ranean and about 110 miles from the border of Ethi-opia ( Cush), of whose trade it was the emporium. Thebes was originally the capital of the fourth nome of Upper Egypt ( Pathros). Early in the third millennium B. C. it was made the seat of the eleventh dynasty. But it was not until the expulsion of the Hyksos ( about 1570 B. C.) that it became the perma-nent capital. Under the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties it attained the height of its splendor. The most famous kings of Egypt, Thothmes III. and Rameses II., adorned it with magnificent structures, the remains of which now form the principal ruins of Karnak and Luxor. After the establishment of the Ethiopian dynasty the city lost its prestige. Its decline was hastened by its repeated capture by Assurbanipal during the native uprisings against the Assyrian suzerainty ( 667– 663 B. C.). Since the days of the Ptolemies it has been the great ruined city of Egypt. The Targum and Gen. R. ( i, begin-ning), and also Judah ha- Levi, translate No- Amon by Alexandria. BIBLIOGRAPHY: See the bibliography to the article EGYPT, ANCIENT AND BIBLICAL, in JEW. ENCYC. v. 60 ( especially works on its history and art); Baedeker, Egypt. E. C. J. F. MCC. NOACHIAN LAWS. See LAWS, NOACHIAN. NOAH.— Biblical Data: Son of Lamech and the ninth in descent from Adam. In the midst of Nissim ibn Shahin Noah Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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