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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 628 which she might be pregnant might not be in doubt ( Yeb. iv. 10). The children of the divorced woman remained in her custody; but the custody of the boys could be claimed by the father after their sixth year ( Ket. 65b, 102b). According to later decisions, however, the court awarded the custody of the children according to its discretion ( Eben ha-‘ Ezer, 82, 7, gloss). For further information concerning the bill of di-vorce, its preparation, attestation, and delivery, see GEt. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mielziner, The Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce, Cincinnati, 1884; Amram, The Jewish Law of Di-vorce, Philadelphia, 1896; Bergel, Die Eheverhältnisse der Alten Juden, Leipsic, 1881; Buchholz, Die Familie, Breslau, 1867; Duschak, Das Mosaisch- Talmudische Eherecht, Vien-na, 1864; Frankel, Grundlinien des Mosaisch- Talmudischen Eherechts, Breslau, 1860. S. S. D. W. A. DIZAHAB: Name occurring but once in the Bi-ble— in the topographical description in Deut. i. 1. Its identity has not been successfully established. The context, locating it indefinitely in the trans- Jordanic region, and mentioning it among localities connected with similar difficulties, gives no clue. Inviting by its form etymological interpretations, the ancient versions have accordingly translated it êáôá÷ñýóåá, “ ubi auri est plurimum,” and áäæ éã (“ a sufficiency of gold”). Onkelos expands it into a Midrash ( on account of the golden calf), and is fol-lowed in this by Rashi. This idea is still more fully enlarged upon by Targ. Yerushalmi and pseudo- Jonathan; they also see in it an allusion to the golden calf, but hold that the sin thus committed was pardoned in consideration of Israel’s having covered the Ark of the Covenant with “ shining gold.” Ibn Ezra simply suggests that it and the other Fðáî ëåãüìåíá in this passage may be unusual designations for places otherwise denoted by different names. According to the school of Rabbi Jannai, Moses in this verse refers to the golden calf, “ to make which Israel was tempted by the superabundance of gold and silver poured out over them by God until they protested ‘ it is enough’” ( Ber. 32a). Cheyne proposes to emend into “ Me- zahab,” which Sayce among others has urged as corresponding, in Gen. xxxvi. 39, to “ Di- zahab” in Deut. i. 1. This “ Me- zahab,” however, Cheyne holds again to be a corruption of “ Miz-raim,” the name for the northern Arabian land, Mizri or Mizrim, adjoining Edom. Burckhardt (“ Travels in Syria,” 1822, p. 523) suggests “ Mina al- Dhahab” as its equivalent, but this view has been abandoned by modern commentators. E. G. H. M. SEL. DLUGOSZ, JEAN. See POLAND. DLUGOSZ ( ùèâåìã: not De Lantes), SAMUEL B. MOSES: Biblical commentator and poet of the seventeenth century; born in Grodno, Lithuania. He edited the Prophets and the Hagiographa in the Judæo- German translation of the Bible, “ Ha- Mag-gid,” to which he added a commentary on the Book of Judges entitled “ Aguddat Shemuel” ( Amsterdam, 1699; Wandsbeck, 1737). He was also a liturgical poet; to his translation of the Bible ( 1699) he add-ed an Aramaic selihah in rime, and two dirges, which were reprinted entire in the “ Tikkun Sho-babim” ( Mantua, 1732) and elsewhere. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 129; Cat-alog der Rosenthalschen Bibliothek, p. 1027; Zunz, Literatur-gesch. p. 443. G. M. K. DOB BAER B. JUDAH LOEB. See TREVES, DOB BÄR B. JUDAH. DOB BAER B. LOEB: Polish rabbi; died in Lemberg 1779. In 1745 he was rabbi at Koznitz in the government of Lublin; in 1754, rabbi of Krosh-nik, about which time he went to Yaroslav to meet the rabbis who defended the cause of Jonathan Eybeschütz against Jacob Emden. In 1758 he was rabbi of Reshaw. Finally he became rabbi and chief of the yeshibah of Lemberg, where he remained till his death. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Buber, Anshe Shem, pp. 51, 52; Eybeschütz, Luhot ‘ Edut, pp. 134, 135. L. G. N. T. L. DOBRITZ: Town in Bulgaria, twenty- six miles north of Varna. It contains about 200 Jews in a to-tal population of 14,000. This little community, which was founded in 1870, is administered by three of the leading Jews. It has a synagogue, erected in 1897, and a small mixed school. The Jews are occupied as ironmongers, tinsmiths, watchmakers, and small traders. Four or five Jew-ish families live at Baltchik, not far from Dobritz. D. M. FR. DOBROJE. See MOHILEV GOVERNMENT. DOBROVELICHKOVKA. See KHERSON. DOBRUSKA, MOSES: Austrian writer and poet; born July 12, 1753, in Brünn, Moravia; guil-lotined April 5, 1793, at Paris. The son of a wealthy Jew, Dobruska was originally destined for the ca-reer of a rabbi, and accordingly received a careful Talmudic education. Later the acquaintance of a Jew engaged in the study of Hebrew poetry, rheto-ric, and Oriental languages induced him to give up theological subjects and to devote himself to the humanities, but not until after a painful struggle with his father, who protested against his plans being so radically brought to naught. Having over-come the paternal opposition, Dobruska eagerly began to study the old German classics and poets. Especially the idyls of Gessner made a deep im-pression upon him and instigated him to the fur-ther study of the German poets. In his ardent pur-suit of literary occupations he even succeeded in persuading his father to allow him a considerable sum of money ( 1,500 florins) for the purchase of books. Besides German he also studied English, French, and Italian. On Dec. 17, 1773, Dobruska embraced the Ro-man Catholic faith, and at his baptism in Prague as-sumed the name of Franz Thomas Schönfeld. Sub-sequently, together with his brothers, he was raised to the nobility ( 1778); and for some time he held the position of associate director of the famous Garelli Library in Vienna. Nothing is known in re-gard to the cause of Dobruska’s execution. Besides several posthumous poems that ap-peared in Becker’s “ Taschenbuch zum Geselligen Vergnügen,” Dobruska published: “ Etliche Gedich-te zur Probe,” Vienna, 1773; “ Schäferspiele,” Prague, 1774; “ Theorie der Schönen Wissenschaf-ten,” Prague; “ Ueber die Poesie der Alten Hebräer,” Dizahab DodoAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 628 which she might be pregnant might not be in doubt ( Yeb. iv. 10). The children of the divorced woman remained in her custody; but the custody of the boys could be claimed by the father after their sixth year ( Ket. 65b, 102b). According to later decisions, however, the court awarded the custody of the children according to its discretion ( Eben ha-‘ Ezer, 82, 7, gloss). For further information concerning the bill of di-vorce, its preparation, attestation, and delivery, see GEt. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mielziner, The Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce, Cincinnati, 1884; Amram, The Jewish Law of Di-vorce, Philadelphia, 1896; Bergel, Die Eheverhältnisse der Alten Juden, Leipsic, 1881; Buchholz, Die Familie, Breslau, 1867; Duschak, Das Mosaisch- Talmudische Eherecht, Vien-na, 1864; Frankel, Grundlinien des Mosaisch- Talmudischen Eherechts, Breslau, 1860. S. S. D. W. A. DIZAHAB: Name occurring but once in the Bi-ble— in the topographical description in Deut. i. 1. Its identity has not been successfully established. The context, locating it indefinitely in the trans- Jordanic region, and mentioning it among localities connected with similar difficulties, gives no clue. Inviting by its form etymological interpretations, the ancient versions have accordingly translated it êáôá÷ñýóåá, “ ubi auri est plurimum,” and áäæ éã (“ a sufficiency of gold”). Onkelos expands it into a Midrash ( on account of the golden calf), and is fol-lowed in this by Rashi. This idea is still more fully enlarged upon by Targ. Yerushalmi and pseudo- Jonathan; they also see in it an allusion to the golden calf, but hold that the sin thus committed was pardoned in consideration of Israel’s having covered the Ark of the Covenant with “ shining gold.” Ibn Ezra simply suggests that it and the other Fðáî ëåãüìåíá in this passage may be unusual designations for places otherwise denoted by different names. According to the school of Rabbi Jannai, Moses in this verse refers to the golden calf, “ to make which Israel was tempted by the superabundance of gold and silver poured out over them by God until they protested ‘ it is enough’” ( Ber. 32a). Cheyne proposes to emend into “ Me- zahab,” which Sayce among others has urged as corresponding, in Gen. xxxvi. 39, to “ Di- zahab” in Deut. i. 1. This “ Me- zahab,” however, Cheyne holds again to be a corruption of “ Miz-raim,” the name for the northern Arabian land, Mizri or Mizrim, adjoining Edom. Burckhardt (“ Travels in Syria,” 1822, p. 523) suggests “ Mina al- Dhahab” as its equivalent, but this view has been abandoned by modern commentators. E. G. H. M. SEL. DLUGOSZ, JEAN. See POLAND. DLUGOSZ ( ùèâåìã: not De Lantes), SAMUEL B. MOSES: Biblical commentator and poet of the seventeenth century; born in Grodno, Lithuania. He edited the Prophets and the Hagiographa in the Judæo- German translation of the Bible, “ Ha- Mag-gid,” to which he added a commentary on the Book of Judges entitled “ Aguddat Shemuel” ( Amsterdam, 1699; Wandsbeck, 1737). He was also a liturgical poet; to his translation of the Bible ( 1699) he add-ed an Aramaic selihah in rime, and two dirges, which were reprinted entire in the “ Tikkun Sho-babim” ( Mantua, 1732) and elsewhere. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 129; Cat-alog der Rosenthalschen Bibliothek, p. 1027; Zunz, Literatur-gesch. p. 443. G. M. K. DOB BAER B. JUDAH LOEB. See TREVES, DOB BÄR B. JUDAH. DOB BAER B. LOEB: Polish rabbi; died in Lemberg 1779. In 1745 he was rabbi at Koznitz in the government of Lublin; in 1754, rabbi of Krosh-nik, about which time he went to Yaroslav to meet the rabbis who defended the cause of Jonathan Eybeschütz against Jacob Emden. In 1758 he was rabbi of Reshaw. Finally he became rabbi and chief of the yeshibah of Lemberg, where he remained till his death. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Buber, Anshe Shem, pp. 51, 52; Eybeschütz, Luhot ‘ Edut, pp. 134, 135. L. G. N. T. L. DOBRITZ: Town in Bulgaria, twenty- six miles north of Varna. It contains about 200 Jews in a to-tal population of 14,000. This little community, which was founded in 1870, is administered by three of the leading Jews. It has a synagogue, erected in 1897, and a small mixed school. The Jews are occupied as ironmongers, tinsmiths, watchmakers, and small traders. Four or five Jew-ish families live at Baltchik, not far from Dobritz. D. M. FR. DOBROJE. See MOHILEV GOVERNMENT. DOBROVELICHKOVKA. See KHERSON. DOBRUSKA, MOSES: Austrian writer and poet; born July 12, 1753, in Brünn, Moravia; guil-lotined April 5, 1793, at Paris. The son of a wealthy Jew, Dobruska was originally destined for the ca-reer of a rabbi, and accordingly received a careful Talmudic education. Later the acquaintance of a Jew engaged in the study of Hebrew poetry, rheto-ric, and Oriental languages induced him to give up theological subjects and to devote himself to the humanities, but not until after a painful struggle with his father, who protested against his plans being so radically brought to naught. Having over-come the paternal opposition, Dobruska eagerly began to study the old German classics and poets. Especially the idyls of Gessner made a deep im-pression upon him and instigated him to the fur-ther study of the German poets. In his ardent pur-suit of literary occupations he even succeeded in persuading his father to allow him a considerable sum of money ( 1,500 florins) for the purchase of books. Besides German he also studied English, French, and Italian. On Dec. 17, 1773, Dobruska embraced the Ro-man Catholic faith, and at his baptism in Prague as-sumed the name of Franz Thomas Schönfeld. Sub-sequently, together with his brothers, he was raised to the nobility ( 1778); and for some time he held the position of associate director of the famous Garelli Library in Vienna. Nothing is known in re-gard to the cause of Dobruska’s execution. Besides several posthumous poems that ap-peared in Becker’s “ Taschenbuch zum Geselligen Vergnügen,” Dobruska published: “ Etliche Gedich-te zur Probe,” Vienna, 1773; “ Schäferspiele,” Prague, 1774; “ Theorie der Schönen Wissenschaf-ten,” Prague; “ Ueber die Poesie der Alten Hebräer,” Dizahab Dodo Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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