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13 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
13 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 1881 2.3 per cent); Sosnitza 7,525 in 170,268 = 4.41 per cent ( in 1881 2.3 per cent); Starodub 9,975 in 144,704 = 6.89 per cent ( in 1881 2.8 per cent); Surazh 10,078 in 188,596 = 5.4 per cent ( in 1881 2.9 per cent). The history of the Jews in the government will be treated under LITTLE RUSSIA, and under the re-spective cities. M. R. Comparative statistics of population in the cit-ies, towns, and villages in the government of Chernigov are given below: H. R. S. J. CHERNOBYL: Town in the government of Kiev, Russia; it has ( 1898) a population of 10,759, including 7,189 Jews. Of the latter, 651 are arti-sans, of whom 419 own shops, 192 are wage- work-ers, and 40 are apprentices. The predominating trade is tailoring, in which 165 persons are en-gaged; 167 Jews are journeymen, and 120 are em-ployed in a paper- mill. Several hadarim, and a Tal-mud Torah with 45 pupils, are the only education-al institutions. Bobrik and Bobry, situated at a distance of 60 versts ( 40 English miles) from Chernobyl, are Jew-ish colonies, in which 47 families cultivate 618 de-ciatines of land. S. J. CHERUB ( áåøë; plural, Cherubim).— Biblical Data: The name of a winged being mentioned fre-quently in the Bible. The prophet Ezekiel describes the cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each having four faces— of a lion, an ox, an eagle, and a man— the stature and hands of a man, the feet of a calf, and four wings. Two of the wings extended upward, meeting above and sustaining the throne of God; while the other two stretched downward and covered the creatures themselves. They never turned, but went “ straight forward” as the wheels of the cherubic chariot, and they were full of eyes “ like burning coals, of fire” ( Ezek. i. 5– 28, ix. 3, x., xi. 22). Ezek. xxviii. 13– 16 is manifestly a true ac-count of a popular tradition, distinct from that in Gen. ii., iii. Ezek. xli. 18– 25 and other passages show that the number and form of the cherubim vary in different representations. The books of Kings and Chronicles contain, in the main, a description of the cherubim of Solomon’s Temple. The Ark was placed between the two colossal figures of cherubim, carved in olive- wood and plated with gold, ten cubits high, standing in the adytum ( øéáã) and facing the door. The distance between the points of their outstretched wings was ten cubits; the right wing of the one touching the point of the left wing of the other, while the outer wings extended to the walls ( I Kings vi. 23– 28; viii. 6, 7; II Chron. in. 10– 13, v. 7– 8). II Chron. iii. 14 states that they were woven in the veil of the adytum; and in Ex. xxvi. 1, 31 and xxxvi. 8, 35 they are also referred to as wrought into the curtains and veil of the Temple. In Ex. xxv. 18– 22, xxxvii. 7– 9; Num. vii. 89 mention is made by the priestly writer of two cherubim of solid gold, upon the golden slab of the úøôë, facing each other. Their outstretched wings came togeth-er above, constituting a throne on which the glory of YHWH appeared, and from whence He spoke. In the early days of Israel’s history the cherubim became the divine chariot, the bearer of the throne of YHWH in its progress through the worlds ( I Sam. iv. 4; II Sam. vi. 2; I Chron. xiii. 6). The cherubim of the Ark of the Covenant seem to be meant here, and this is probably also the case in II Kings xix. 15; Isa. xxxvii. 16; Ps. lxxx. 1, xcix. 1 ( see Rahlfs, ‘ ðò und åðò in den Psalmen,” 1892, pp. 36 et seq.). At an earlier period the cherubim were the living chariot of the theophanic God, possibly identical with the storm- winds ( Ps. xviii. 11; II Sam. xxii. 11: “ And he rode upon a cherub and did fly: and he was seen upon the wings of the wind”). Here is a conception similar to that of the Babylonians, where the cherubim originally symbolized the winds. E. G. H. W. M.- A.— J. F. MCC. — In Rabbinical and Apocryphal Literature: The cherubim placed by God at the entrance of paradise ( Gen. iii. 24) were angels created on the third day, and therefore they had no definite shape; appearing either as men or women, or as spirits or angelic beings ( Gen. R. xxi., end). According to another authority, the cherubim were the first ob-jects created in the universe ( Tanna debe Eliyahu R., i. beginning); while in the Slavonic Book of En-och they are said to dwell in both the sixth and seventh heavens. The passage referring to the sixth heaven is as follows ( xix. 6): “ In the midst of them [ the archangels] are seven phenixes, and seven cherubim, and seven six- winged creatures [ sera-phim], being as one voice and singing with one voice. It is not possible to describe their singing; and they rejoice before the Lord at His footstool.” Enoch then ( xx. 1) describes how he saw in the seventh heaven “ cherubim and seraphim and the watchfulness of many eyes” (= ofannim). The Ethiopian Book of Enoch also mentions these three classes of angels as those that never sleep, but always watch the throne of God ( lxx. 7; com-pare also lxi. 10). In another passage of this book Gabriel is designated as the archangel who is set Cherkassy Cherub In the Temple.Aac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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13 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 1881 2.3 per cent); Sosnitza 7,525 in 170,268 = 4.41 per cent ( in 1881 2.3 per cent); Starodub 9,975 in 144,704 = 6.89 per cent ( in 1881 2.8 per cent); Surazh 10,078 in 188,596 = 5.4 per cent ( in 1881 2.9 per cent). The history of the Jews in the government will be treated under LITTLE RUSSIA, and under the re-spective cities. M. R. Comparative statistics of population in the cit-ies, towns, and villages in the government of Chernigov are given below: H. R. S. J. CHERNOBYL: Town in the government of Kiev, Russia; it has ( 1898) a population of 10,759, including 7,189 Jews. Of the latter, 651 are arti-sans, of whom 419 own shops, 192 are wage- work-ers, and 40 are apprentices. The predominating trade is tailoring, in which 165 persons are en-gaged; 167 Jews are journeymen, and 120 are em-ployed in a paper- mill. Several hadarim, and a Tal-mud Torah with 45 pupils, are the only education-al institutions. Bobrik and Bobry, situated at a distance of 60 versts ( 40 English miles) from Chernobyl, are Jew-ish colonies, in which 47 families cultivate 618 de-ciatines of land. S. J. CHERUB ( áåøë; plural, Cherubim).— Biblical Data: The name of a winged being mentioned fre-quently in the Bible. The prophet Ezekiel describes the cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each having four faces— of a lion, an ox, an eagle, and a man— the stature and hands of a man, the feet of a calf, and four wings. Two of the wings extended upward, meeting above and sustaining the throne of God; while the other two stretched downward and covered the creatures themselves. They never turned, but went “ straight forward” as the wheels of the cherubic chariot, and they were full of eyes “ like burning coals, of fire” ( Ezek. i. 5– 28, ix. 3, x., xi. 22). Ezek. xxviii. 13– 16 is manifestly a true ac-count of a popular tradition, distinct from that in Gen. ii., iii. Ezek. xli. 18– 25 and other passages show that the number and form of the cherubim vary in different representations. The books of Kings and Chronicles contain, in the main, a description of the cherubim of Solomon’s Temple. The Ark was placed between the two colossal figures of cherubim, carved in olive- wood and plated with gold, ten cubits high, standing in the adytum ( øéáã) and facing the door. The distance between the points of their outstretched wings was ten cubits; the right wing of the one touching the point of the left wing of the other, while the outer wings extended to the walls ( I Kings vi. 23– 28; viii. 6, 7; II Chron. in. 10– 13, v. 7– 8). II Chron. iii. 14 states that they were woven in the veil of the adytum; and in Ex. xxvi. 1, 31 and xxxvi. 8, 35 they are also referred to as wrought into the curtains and veil of the Temple. In Ex. xxv. 18– 22, xxxvii. 7– 9; Num. vii. 89 mention is made by the priestly writer of two cherubim of solid gold, upon the golden slab of the úøôë, facing each other. Their outstretched wings came togeth-er above, constituting a throne on which the glory of YHWH appeared, and from whence He spoke. In the early days of Israel’s history the cherubim became the divine chariot, the bearer of the throne of YHWH in its progress through the worlds ( I Sam. iv. 4; II Sam. vi. 2; I Chron. xiii. 6). The cherubim of the Ark of the Covenant seem to be meant here, and this is probably also the case in II Kings xix. 15; Isa. xxxvii. 16; Ps. lxxx. 1, xcix. 1 ( see Rahlfs, ‘ ðò und åðò in den Psalmen,” 1892, pp. 36 et seq.). At an earlier period the cherubim were the living chariot of the theophanic God, possibly identical with the storm- winds ( Ps. xviii. 11; II Sam. xxii. 11: “ And he rode upon a cherub and did fly: and he was seen upon the wings of the wind”). Here is a conception similar to that of the Babylonians, where the cherubim originally symbolized the winds. E. G. H. W. M.- A.— J. F. MCC. — In Rabbinical and Apocryphal Literature: The cherubim placed by God at the entrance of paradise ( Gen. iii. 24) were angels created on the third day, and therefore they had no definite shape; appearing either as men or women, or as spirits or angelic beings ( Gen. R. xxi., end). According to another authority, the cherubim were the first ob-jects created in the universe ( Tanna debe Eliyahu R., i. beginning); while in the Slavonic Book of En-och they are said to dwell in both the sixth and seventh heavens. The passage referring to the sixth heaven is as follows ( xix. 6): “ In the midst of them [ the archangels] are seven phenixes, and seven cherubim, and seven six- winged creatures [ sera-phim], being as one voice and singing with one voice. It is not possible to describe their singing; and they rejoice before the Lord at His footstool.” Enoch then ( xx. 1) describes how he saw in the seventh heaven “ cherubim and seraphim and the watchfulness of many eyes” (= ofannim). The Ethiopian Book of Enoch also mentions these three classes of angels as those that never sleep, but always watch the throne of God ( lxx. 7; com-pare also lxi. 10). In another passage of this book Gabriel is designated as the archangel who is set Cherkassy Cherub In the Temple. Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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