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477 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
477 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA YHWH reappears. Joel ( 400 B. C.) reverts to it. The valley of Jehoshaphat is the place of judgment. The nations are gathered, judged, and annihilated ( Joel iii. 1, 2, 12). YHWH is Israel’s defender ( iii. 2). Israel is justified, but it is Israel purified ( ii. 25– 27, 28, 29; iii. 16, 17). Before “ the day” all Israel is filled with the spirit of God ( ii. 28, 29). Nature announces its approach ( ii. 30, 31). As in Joel, so in all apocalyp-tic visions the idea is prominent that the day of YHWH (= of judgment) marks evil’s culmination, but that Israel and the righteous will be supernaturally helped in their greatest need. Faintly foreshadowed in Ezekiel, this thought is reproduced in various ways, until in Daniel ( vii. 9, 11, 12, 21, 22; xii. 1) it finds typical expression, and is a dominant factor in Jewish apocalyptic writings and Talmudic eschatol-ogy ( see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, s. v. BOOK OF EN-OCH; DANIEL; DAY OF JUDGMENT; ESCHATOLOGY). Regarding the name “ Day of the Lord” given by Christianity to Sunday, see DIDASCALIA; RESURREC-TION FROM THE DEAD; SUNDAY. Regarding the Talmud-ic day of God in the sense of “ millennium,” see MILLENNIUM. BIBLIOGRAPHY: The commentaries to the prophetical passages quoted; R. H. Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, London, 1899; Smith, The Day of the Lord, in American Journal of Theology, 1900. E. G. H. DAYS, LUCKY AND UNLUCKY. See SUPER-STITION. DAYYAN, ABRAHAM BEN ISAIAH: Turk-ish rabbi; lived at Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey, in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote “ Shir Hadash” ( A New Song), an Arabic glossary on the Psalms ( Leghorn, 1841); “ Zikron ha- Nefesh” ( Re-membrance for the Soul), ethical discourses ar-ranged in alphabetical order ( ib. 1842); and a work in two parts: the first, “ Holek Tamim” ( He Who Walks in Uprightness), similar in character and ar-rangement to the preceding; the second, “ Po‘ el Zedek” ( He Who Acts Justly), responsa ( ib. 1850). At the end of the last- named work the author gives a history of Aleppo, or, as he calls it, Aram Zobah, from its conquest by David to the present time. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. pp. 132, 206. L. G. M. SEL. DAYYENA. See DIENA. DEAD BODY. See CARCASS. DEAD, DUTY TO THE: The dead, free from all obligation ( Shab. 30a), have many claims upon the living. “ Their wish must be respected and ful-filled” ( Git. 14b; Maimonides, “ Yad,” Zekiyah, viii. 2, xiii. 1; Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, 125, 8). “ It is unlawful to speak evil of the dead” ( Ber. 19a; Mordecai Yoma, ii. 1196; Hagahot Asheri Ta‘ anit, iii. 64; compare Diogenes Laertius, “ Chilon,” i. 3, 70, whence the Latin proverb “ De mortuis nil nisi bon-um”). It is a transgression of the Law ( Deut. xxi. 23) not only to leave the dead unburied ( see BUR-IAL), but also to do anything which may disfigure or desecrate the dead ( úîä ìååð) ( Yer. Sanh. vii. 3; Yer. Sotah iii. 19b; see CRUELTY). For this reason a post- mortem examination was forbidden by R. Ak-iba ( B. B. 154a, b; compare Hul. 11b), although ana-tomical knowledge was obtained by occasional postmortem examinations such as are mentioned in Ber. 45a ( compare Nid. 30b). In fact disrespect-ful treatment of a dead human body, as, for in-stance, placing the bones in a sack and loading them upon a beast, instead of carrying them rever-ently to their last resting- place, is regarded as in-human ( Ber. 18a). See also BURIAL SOCIETIES; CEME-TERY; FUNERAL RITES. “ Every act of kindness done to the dead is called ‘ hesed shel emet” [= “ true unselfish love”] because the hope of compensation is excluded” ( Gen. R. xcvi.). In case the dead was offended in his lifetime, his pardon is to be solicited at the grave by the offend-er in the presence of ten persons ( Yoma 87a; Yer. Yoma viii. 45c); this is called asking “ mehilah.” Particularly should the memory of the righteous be held in honor, and his name when mentioned be blessed ( Ps. cxii. 6; Prov. x. 7; Yoma iii. 11; Pesik. R. 12; Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxviii. 1; Gen. R. xlix.; Midr. Shemuel i.). For this reason the names of good men, and especially of parents, were preserved by being given to children ( Haggadah Shab. i. 17; see Zunz, “ Z. G.” p. 318). When mentioned, the name of the dead, especially of parent or teacher, is to be accompanied by some formula of blessing upon his memory ( Kid. 31b; see INVOCATION; Zunz, l. c. pp. 320– 348). See also JAHRZEIT; KADDISH; LEVIRATE. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zunz, Zur Geschichte und Literatur, 1845, pp. 317– 458; Landshuth, Seder Bikkur Holim, Ma‘ abar Yabok, Introduction, Berlin, 1857. K. DEAD SEA: Lake in southeast Palestine, and one of the curious natural phenomena of the earth. It occupies the lowest part of the great depression which extends from northern Palestine to the Gulf of Akabah. At its most northerly point 150 meters above the level of the Mediterranean, the depression south of the Dead Sea rises to a height of 240 me-ters. The surface of the Dead Sea is 394 meters, and its greatest depth not less than 793 meters, below the level of the Mediterranean. Therefore the present formation of the basin prohibits any out-flow, and geological investigations have shown that there never was one. The Jordan pours daily 6,000,000 tons of water into the Dead Sea; but since about an equal amount is daily evaporated, the lev-el remains nearly the same, varying only from 4 to 6 meters with the change of seasons. Owing to this evaporation, to the mineral character of its own basin, and to the constant addition of saline elements from the Jordan, the water of the Dead Sea contains a large proportion of mineral matter, chiefly salt, chlorids of magnesium and cal-cium. It is consequently bitter to the taste and has an oily consistency. It is likewise extremely buoy-ant. The human body floats well out of the water, and diving is almost impossible. With the exception of some microscopic protophytes— namely, fresh-water diatoms and pathogenic microbes— nothing can live in the waters of the Dead Sea. Even salt-water fish die in it, and the bodies of fresh- water fish carried down by the Jordan float on the surface in great numbers. It is not true, however, that birds Day of the Lord Dead Sea Composi-tion of the Water.Aac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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477 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA YHWH reappears. Joel ( 400 B. C.) reverts to it. The valley of Jehoshaphat is the place of judgment. The nations are gathered, judged, and annihilated ( Joel iii. 1, 2, 12). YHWH is Israel’s defender ( iii. 2). Israel is justified, but it is Israel purified ( ii. 25– 27, 28, 29; iii. 16, 17). Before “ the day” all Israel is filled with the spirit of God ( ii. 28, 29). Nature announces its approach ( ii. 30, 31). As in Joel, so in all apocalyp-tic visions the idea is prominent that the day of YHWH (= of judgment) marks evil’s culmination, but that Israel and the righteous will be supernaturally helped in their greatest need. Faintly foreshadowed in Ezekiel, this thought is reproduced in various ways, until in Daniel ( vii. 9, 11, 12, 21, 22; xii. 1) it finds typical expression, and is a dominant factor in Jewish apocalyptic writings and Talmudic eschatol-ogy ( see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, s. v. BOOK OF EN-OCH; DANIEL; DAY OF JUDGMENT; ESCHATOLOGY). Regarding the name “ Day of the Lord” given by Christianity to Sunday, see DIDASCALIA; RESURREC-TION FROM THE DEAD; SUNDAY. Regarding the Talmud-ic day of God in the sense of “ millennium,” see MILLENNIUM. BIBLIOGRAPHY: The commentaries to the prophetical passages quoted; R. H. Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, London, 1899; Smith, The Day of the Lord, in American Journal of Theology, 1900. E. G. H. DAYS, LUCKY AND UNLUCKY. See SUPER-STITION. DAYYAN, ABRAHAM BEN ISAIAH: Turk-ish rabbi; lived at Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey, in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote “ Shir Hadash” ( A New Song), an Arabic glossary on the Psalms ( Leghorn, 1841); “ Zikron ha- Nefesh” ( Re-membrance for the Soul), ethical discourses ar-ranged in alphabetical order ( ib. 1842); and a work in two parts: the first, “ Holek Tamim” ( He Who Walks in Uprightness), similar in character and ar-rangement to the preceding; the second, “ Po‘ el Zedek” ( He Who Acts Justly), responsa ( ib. 1850). At the end of the last- named work the author gives a history of Aleppo, or, as he calls it, Aram Zobah, from its conquest by David to the present time. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. pp. 132, 206. L. G. M. SEL. DAYYENA. See DIENA. DEAD BODY. See CARCASS. DEAD, DUTY TO THE: The dead, free from all obligation ( Shab. 30a), have many claims upon the living. “ Their wish must be respected and ful-filled” ( Git. 14b; Maimonides, “ Yad,” Zekiyah, viii. 2, xiii. 1; Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, 125, 8). “ It is unlawful to speak evil of the dead” ( Ber. 19a; Mordecai Yoma, ii. 1196; Hagahot Asheri Ta‘ anit, iii. 64; compare Diogenes Laertius, “ Chilon,” i. 3, 70, whence the Latin proverb “ De mortuis nil nisi bon-um”). It is a transgression of the Law ( Deut. xxi. 23) not only to leave the dead unburied ( see BUR-IAL), but also to do anything which may disfigure or desecrate the dead ( úîä ìååð) ( Yer. Sanh. vii. 3; Yer. Sotah iii. 19b; see CRUELTY). For this reason a post- mortem examination was forbidden by R. Ak-iba ( B. B. 154a, b; compare Hul. 11b), although ana-tomical knowledge was obtained by occasional postmortem examinations such as are mentioned in Ber. 45a ( compare Nid. 30b). In fact disrespect-ful treatment of a dead human body, as, for in-stance, placing the bones in a sack and loading them upon a beast, instead of carrying them rever-ently to their last resting- place, is regarded as in-human ( Ber. 18a). See also BURIAL SOCIETIES; CEME-TERY; FUNERAL RITES. “ Every act of kindness done to the dead is called ‘ hesed shel emet” [= “ true unselfish love”] because the hope of compensation is excluded” ( Gen. R. xcvi.). In case the dead was offended in his lifetime, his pardon is to be solicited at the grave by the offend-er in the presence of ten persons ( Yoma 87a; Yer. Yoma viii. 45c); this is called asking “ mehilah.” Particularly should the memory of the righteous be held in honor, and his name when mentioned be blessed ( Ps. cxii. 6; Prov. x. 7; Yoma iii. 11; Pesik. R. 12; Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxviii. 1; Gen. R. xlix.; Midr. Shemuel i.). For this reason the names of good men, and especially of parents, were preserved by being given to children ( Haggadah Shab. i. 17; see Zunz, “ Z. G.” p. 318). When mentioned, the name of the dead, especially of parent or teacher, is to be accompanied by some formula of blessing upon his memory ( Kid. 31b; see INVOCATION; Zunz, l. c. pp. 320– 348). See also JAHRZEIT; KADDISH; LEVIRATE. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Zunz, Zur Geschichte und Literatur, 1845, pp. 317– 458; Landshuth, Seder Bikkur Holim, Ma‘ abar Yabok, Introduction, Berlin, 1857. K. DEAD SEA: Lake in southeast Palestine, and one of the curious natural phenomena of the earth. It occupies the lowest part of the great depression which extends from northern Palestine to the Gulf of Akabah. At its most northerly point 150 meters above the level of the Mediterranean, the depression south of the Dead Sea rises to a height of 240 me-ters. The surface of the Dead Sea is 394 meters, and its greatest depth not less than 793 meters, below the level of the Mediterranean. Therefore the present formation of the basin prohibits any out-flow, and geological investigations have shown that there never was one. The Jordan pours daily 6,000,000 tons of water into the Dead Sea; but since about an equal amount is daily evaporated, the lev-el remains nearly the same, varying only from 4 to 6 meters with the change of seasons. Owing to this evaporation, to the mineral character of its own basin, and to the constant addition of saline elements from the Jordan, the water of the Dead Sea contains a large proportion of mineral matter, chiefly salt, chlorids of magnesium and cal-cium. It is consequently bitter to the taste and has an oily consistency. It is likewise extremely buoy-ant. The human body floats well out of the water, and diving is almost impossible. With the exception of some microscopic protophytes— namely, fresh-water diatoms and pathogenic microbes— nothing can live in the waters of the Dead Sea. Even salt-water fish die in it, and the bodies of fresh- water fish carried down by the Jordan float on the surface in great numbers. It is not true, however, that birds Day of the Lord Dead Sea Composi-tion of the Water. Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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