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9 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
9 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA CHELUB: A Hebrew word meaning a cage, as in Jer. v. 27. It is also the name of two men: ( 1) The brother of Shuah and father of Mehir of the tribe of Judah ( I Chron. iv. 11). In the Septuagint ×áë~ ùâ. ( 2) The father of David’s chief gardener, Ezri ( I Chron. xxvii. 26), 1014 B. C. In the Septuagint ×åëïýâ. E. G. H. J. D. B. CHELUBAI: This is probably another form of the name CALEB. It occurs in I Chron. ii. 9. E. G. H. G. B. L. CHEMARIM: Plural of øîë; occurs as translit-eration of the Hebrew in the English translation of Zeph. i. 4, and also as the marginal reading both in A. V. and R. V. to II Kings xxiii. 5 and Hosea x. 5, where the text renders the Hebrew by “ idolatrous priests” and “ priests.” In Zeph. i. 4 the Septuagint omits it, and this in connection with the parallelism goes far to indicate that there it is an interpolation. But Wellhausen and others have, by emending the passage in Hosea iv. 4, éáéøîë êîòå, to read åéøîëë éîòå ( my people like its idolatrous priests), claimed for the word another passage in old Hebrew writings. The meaning of the word is well assured to be “ priests.” It occurs with certainty in this accepta-tion in Semitic inscriptions ( Halévy, in “ Rev. Sém.” 1896, pp. 280, 282; “ C. I. S.” ii. 170), and possibly as “ kamiru” on the El- Amarna tablets ( Bezold, “ Ori-ental Dipolmacy,” p. 92). In the Aramaic and in the Peshitta “ kumra” stands for “ priest” without tinge of evil sense. In Neo- Hebrew øîåë designates a Catholic priest and monk. In the passages quoted above, the term without doubt carries a by- flavor of disrepute. It is the “ idol- worshiping priest” that is so denominated. And in this sense the appella-tion is very frequent in the Talmud ( äøæ äãáòì øîåë äùòð, ‘ Ar. 30b; äøæ äãáòì øîåë äéä åøúÛ, Pesik. R, 65c). The etymology, however, is not so clear. Usually it is associated with the verb “ kamar,” to be black. Kimhi, among others, is of this opinion, and de-rives the meaning “ priest” from the circumstance that the “ priests wore black garments.” Others con-nect the root with the idea to be sad, “ kumra” be-ing a sad person; i. e., an ascete, monk, priest. Del-itzsch, in “ Assyrisches Handwörterbuch,” holds it to have sprung from “ kamaru,” to overthrow, to prostrate, the “ priest” being he who prostrates him-self before the idol. Perhaps the meaning of øîë in the Nif‘ al (“ to grow hot”) best explains the trans-ition to “ priest” with a by- sense of “ reprobate.” The old Semitic idols were without exception wor-shiped by intemperate ( sexual) excesses. The “ hot” “ exciting man” was the priest êáô åîï÷Þí. E. G. H. CHEMEROVTZY: Small town in the govern-ment of Podolia, Russia, with ( in 1898) an almost exclusively Jewish population of 1,282. About 160 Jews follow various trades, but the bulk of the pop-ulation is engaged in mercantile pursuits. Hair sacks form the principal article of commerce, being ex-ported to the value of 100,000 rubles annually. Poverty is increasing to such a degree that the scanty funds of the two existing charitable organi-zations can barely meet the needs of the poorer part of the community. The educational institutions include a Talmud Torah, with 10 pupils, and 10 ha-darim ( which are subdivided into 3 primary, 3 mid-dle, and 4 higher departments), with 178 pupils. H. R. S. J. CHEMNITZ: Town in Saxony, with a Jewish population of 1,150. Jews first settled there in the latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1874 they organized a congregation, although on feast- days religious services had been held since 1871. The hebra kaddisha and the Jewish Women’s Associ-ation were founded in 1876. On March 29, 1878, the prayer- house was consecrated; and in 1879 a cem-etery was secured. The first rabbi of the con-gregation was Abraham Chatiner ( d. 1882); he was succeeded by Jacob Mühlfelder, who is still officia-ting ( 1902). The congregation was granted corpo-rate rights Oct. 12, 1885. In 1899 the building of a new synagogue, with a seating capacity of 685, was completed. The dedication took place March 7, 1899. In the same year the Max and Selma Berg-mann’s Widows and Orphans’ Charitable Institution was founded. The congregation maintains a school with three teachers and two hundred pupils. Chemnitz is the seat of the Saxonia Lodge XLIV., 497 I. O. B. B., established May 27, 1899. E. C. S. SO. CHEMOSH: The national god of the Moabites. He became angry with his people and permitted them to become the vassals of Israel; his anger passed, he commanded Mesha to fight against Isra-el, and Moabitish independence was reestablished, ( Moabite Stone, lines 5, 9, 14 et seq.). A king in the days of Sennacherib was called “ Chemoshnadab” (“ K. B.” ii. 90 et seq.: see JEHONADAB). Chemosh was a god developed out of the primitive Semitic moth-er- goddess Athtar, whose name he bears ( Moabite Stone, line 17; compare Barton, “ Semitic Origins,” iv.). Peake wrongly holds that Ashtar- Chemosh was a deity distinct from Chemosh, while Moore and Bäthgen (“ Beiträge zur Semitischen Religionsge-schichte,” p. 14) regard “ Ashtar” in this name as equivalent to “ Astarte,” who they believe was wor-shiped in the temple of Chemosh. “ Ashtar” is more probably masculine here, as in South Arabia, and another name for Chemosh, the compound “ Ashtar- Chemosh” being formed like “ YHWH- Elohim” or “ YHWH- Sebaoth.” There seems to be no good rea-son for denying that Chemosh was a “ baal,” and that the names “ Baal- maon” ( Moabite Stone, line 30) and “ Baal- peor” ( Num. xxv. 3; Hosea ix. 10) apply to what was practically the same god as Chemosh. The way Mesha brings Baal- maon into his inscription identifies the latter with Chemosh; for when Baal- maon is pleased Chemosh speaks to Mesha ( Moabite Stone, lines 30, 31). Whatever dif-ferences of conception may have attached to the god at different shrines, there is no adequate rea-son for doubting the substantial identity of the gods to whom these various names were applied. Hosea ix. 10 is proof that at some period ( accord-ing to Wellhausen, at the time of the prophet him-self) the impure cult of the Semitic goddess was practised at Baal- peor ( compare Wellhausen, “ Kleine Propheten”; Nowack’s Commentary; and G. A. Smith, “ Twelve Prophets,” ad loc.). Chemosh, Cheese ChemoshAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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9 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA CHELUB: A Hebrew word meaning a cage, as in Jer. v. 27. It is also the name of two men: ( 1) The brother of Shuah and father of Mehir of the tribe of Judah ( I Chron. iv. 11). In the Septuagint ×áë~ ùâ. ( 2) The father of David’s chief gardener, Ezri ( I Chron. xxvii. 26), 1014 B. C. In the Septuagint ×åëïýâ. E. G. H. J. D. B. CHELUBAI: This is probably another form of the name CALEB. It occurs in I Chron. ii. 9. E. G. H. G. B. L. CHEMARIM: Plural of øîë; occurs as translit-eration of the Hebrew in the English translation of Zeph. i. 4, and also as the marginal reading both in A. V. and R. V. to II Kings xxiii. 5 and Hosea x. 5, where the text renders the Hebrew by “ idolatrous priests” and “ priests.” In Zeph. i. 4 the Septuagint omits it, and this in connection with the parallelism goes far to indicate that there it is an interpolation. But Wellhausen and others have, by emending the passage in Hosea iv. 4, éáéøîë êîòå, to read åéøîëë éîòå ( my people like its idolatrous priests), claimed for the word another passage in old Hebrew writings. The meaning of the word is well assured to be “ priests.” It occurs with certainty in this accepta-tion in Semitic inscriptions ( Halévy, in “ Rev. Sém.” 1896, pp. 280, 282; “ C. I. S.” ii. 170), and possibly as “ kamiru” on the El- Amarna tablets ( Bezold, “ Ori-ental Dipolmacy,” p. 92). In the Aramaic and in the Peshitta “ kumra” stands for “ priest” without tinge of evil sense. In Neo- Hebrew øîåë designates a Catholic priest and monk. In the passages quoted above, the term without doubt carries a by- flavor of disrepute. It is the “ idol- worshiping priest” that is so denominated. And in this sense the appella-tion is very frequent in the Talmud ( äøæ äãáòì øîåë äùòð, ‘ Ar. 30b; äøæ äãáòì øîåë äéä åøúÛ, Pesik. R, 65c). The etymology, however, is not so clear. Usually it is associated with the verb “ kamar,” to be black. Kimhi, among others, is of this opinion, and de-rives the meaning “ priest” from the circumstance that the “ priests wore black garments.” Others con-nect the root with the idea to be sad, “ kumra” be-ing a sad person; i. e., an ascete, monk, priest. Del-itzsch, in “ Assyrisches Handwörterbuch,” holds it to have sprung from “ kamaru,” to overthrow, to prostrate, the “ priest” being he who prostrates him-self before the idol. Perhaps the meaning of øîë in the Nif‘ al (“ to grow hot”) best explains the trans-ition to “ priest” with a by- sense of “ reprobate.” The old Semitic idols were without exception wor-shiped by intemperate ( sexual) excesses. The “ hot” “ exciting man” was the priest êáô åîï÷Þí. E. G. H. CHEMEROVTZY: Small town in the govern-ment of Podolia, Russia, with ( in 1898) an almost exclusively Jewish population of 1,282. About 160 Jews follow various trades, but the bulk of the pop-ulation is engaged in mercantile pursuits. Hair sacks form the principal article of commerce, being ex-ported to the value of 100,000 rubles annually. Poverty is increasing to such a degree that the scanty funds of the two existing charitable organi-zations can barely meet the needs of the poorer part of the community. The educational institutions include a Talmud Torah, with 10 pupils, and 10 ha-darim ( which are subdivided into 3 primary, 3 mid-dle, and 4 higher departments), with 178 pupils. H. R. S. J. CHEMNITZ: Town in Saxony, with a Jewish population of 1,150. Jews first settled there in the latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1874 they organized a congregation, although on feast- days religious services had been held since 1871. The hebra kaddisha and the Jewish Women’s Associ-ation were founded in 1876. On March 29, 1878, the prayer- house was consecrated; and in 1879 a cem-etery was secured. The first rabbi of the con-gregation was Abraham Chatiner ( d. 1882); he was succeeded by Jacob Mühlfelder, who is still officia-ting ( 1902). The congregation was granted corpo-rate rights Oct. 12, 1885. In 1899 the building of a new synagogue, with a seating capacity of 685, was completed. The dedication took place March 7, 1899. In the same year the Max and Selma Berg-mann’s Widows and Orphans’ Charitable Institution was founded. The congregation maintains a school with three teachers and two hundred pupils. Chemnitz is the seat of the Saxonia Lodge XLIV., 497 I. O. B. B., established May 27, 1899. E. C. S. SO. CHEMOSH: The national god of the Moabites. He became angry with his people and permitted them to become the vassals of Israel; his anger passed, he commanded Mesha to fight against Isra-el, and Moabitish independence was reestablished, ( Moabite Stone, lines 5, 9, 14 et seq.). A king in the days of Sennacherib was called “ Chemoshnadab” (“ K. B.” ii. 90 et seq.: see JEHONADAB). Chemosh was a god developed out of the primitive Semitic moth-er- goddess Athtar, whose name he bears ( Moabite Stone, line 17; compare Barton, “ Semitic Origins,” iv.). Peake wrongly holds that Ashtar- Chemosh was a deity distinct from Chemosh, while Moore and Bäthgen (“ Beiträge zur Semitischen Religionsge-schichte,” p. 14) regard “ Ashtar” in this name as equivalent to “ Astarte,” who they believe was wor-shiped in the temple of Chemosh. “ Ashtar” is more probably masculine here, as in South Arabia, and another name for Chemosh, the compound “ Ashtar- Chemosh” being formed like “ YHWH- Elohim” or “ YHWH- Sebaoth.” There seems to be no good rea-son for denying that Chemosh was a “ baal,” and that the names “ Baal- maon” ( Moabite Stone, line 30) and “ Baal- peor” ( Num. xxv. 3; Hosea ix. 10) apply to what was practically the same god as Chemosh. The way Mesha brings Baal- maon into his inscription identifies the latter with Chemosh; for when Baal- maon is pleased Chemosh speaks to Mesha ( Moabite Stone, lines 30, 31). Whatever dif-ferences of conception may have attached to the god at different shrines, there is no adequate rea-son for doubting the substantial identity of the gods to whom these various names were applied. Hosea ix. 10 is proof that at some period ( accord-ing to Wellhausen, at the time of the prophet him-self) the impure cult of the Semitic goddess was practised at Baal- peor ( compare Wellhausen, “ Kleine Propheten”; Nowack’s Commentary; and G. A. Smith, “ Twelve Prophets,” ad loc.). Chemosh, Cheese Chemosh Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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