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409 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
409 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ D’, DA, DE: In the alphabetical arrangement of names the above prefixes have been disregard-ed; consequently d’Aguilar will be found as Agui-lar, d’; Da Costa as Costa, Da; etc.] DABBASHETH: A town on the border- line of Zebulun ( Josh. xix. 11). It has been identified by Conder with Dabsheh, the ruins of which are near the hills east of Acco. The Septuagint reading is ÂáéèÜñáâá. E. G. H. G. B. L. DABERATH: A town on the eastern boundary of Zebulun ( Josh. xix. 12), but belonging to the do-main of Issachar, and assigned to the Levites ( Josh. xxi. 28; I Chron. vi. 58). It is the modern Deburich, an important strategic position at the foot of Mount Tabor and overlooking the entrance into the great plain of Esdraelon. It was here, perhaps, that Barak mustered his troops ( G. A. Smith, “ Hist. Geog. of the Holy Land,” p. 394). From Josephus (“ B. J.” ii. 21, § 3) it is known that a Jewish garri-son was placed here for the purpose of watching the plain. The name occurs in a slightly altered form in the Talmud ( Neubauer, “ G. T.” p. 265). Moore conjectures that Deborah was a native of this place ( see Buhl, “ Geographie des Alten Paläs-tina,” p. 216). E. G. H. G. B. L. DACOSTA, ISAAC- FRANCIS: Musician and composer; born at Bordeaux Jan. 17, 1778; died there Nov. 29, 1864. He was a pupil of the Musical Conservatory in 1798. Later, while first cornet at the opera in Paris, he was vice- leader of the Musique des Gardes du Corps, under Louis XVIII. He wrote several romances and concertos. Meyerbeer composed for him, in 1836, the clarinet solo in the fifth act of “ The Huguenots.” He is be-lieved to have been the son of the musician Samu-el- Franco Dacosta, who was arraigned before the revolutionary tribunal at Bordeaux in 1794. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Edouard Féret, Statistique de la Gironde, iii. 162; Aurel Vivie, Hist. de la Terreur á Bordeaux, ii. 343– 401. G. C. DE B. DAGESH: The diacritical point placed in the center of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet to indicate either their intensified ( doubled) pronun-ciation, or, in the case of the letters úôëãâá ( b, g, d, k, p, t), their hard ( unaspirated) pronunciation. The root “ dagash” means in Syriac “ to prick” ( com-pare Targ. to Prov. xii. 18); but the context in which the term “ dagesh” first occurs militates against deriving it from this signification of the root. The use of “ dagesh” as the name of the point indicating the intensified pronunciation is only a secondary one, for in the old Masoretic texts and in the Mahzor Vitry ( ed. Horowitz, p. 228), “ dagesh” indicates the intensified pronunciation itself, in contrast to “ rafe,” the weak pronunciation. The root “ dagash” occurs only once in the traditional literature, in a reference to the letter ã ( d) of the word ãçà (“ ehad,” Deut. vi. 4), and that, too, in a Czestionev Dagesh sentence of the Palestinian Talmud which is known only from a later quotation ( Tur Orah Hayyim, lxi.). A reference to the dagesh, though without the use of the specific term, is to be found in the Pesikta Rabbati and in “ Sefer Yezirah.” From the Masorah the word passed into the ter-minology of the grammarians in its earlier sense, as, for instance, in Ben Asher and Saadia Gaon. The latter called one part of his grammatical work “ The Book of Dagesh and Rafe”; preserving, as did the Karaite lexicographer David b. Abraham, even in the Arabic text the Hebrew- Aramaic terms. Saadia uses Arabic noun and verb forms derived from the word. Hayyuj uses in their stead the corresponding Arabic terms “ shadid,” “ mushaddad,” “ khafif,” “ mukhaffaf”; and he was followed in this by others writing in Arabic. From the time of Abraham ibn Ezra, howev-er, philologists writing in Hebrew reestablished the use of the word “ dagesh,” from which various nom-inal and verbal forms were derived and added to the terminology of Hebrew grammar. There is no trace among the early writers of a classification of the various uses to which the dagesh was put, such as became customary later, though the relation in which the six letters úôëãâá stood to the dagesh was of course emphasized; the letter ø, because of its double pronunciation by the Palestinians, was added to the six in “ Sefer Yezi-rah” and in Ben Asher. The term “ dagesh kal” ( light dagesh), to denote the hard unaspirated pronunci-ation of the letters úôëãâá, occurs perhaps first in David Kimhi’s “ Miklol” ( ed. Venice, 1545, p. 49a). The rules for the “ dagesh hazak” ( strong dagesh, that denoting a doubling of the letter) were first formulated by Elijah Levita (“ Perek Shirah,” 54a et seq.), who enumerates eight cases in which it oc-curs. Later grammarians have superseded this divi-sion by a more extended one ( see König, “ Lehrge-bäude der Hebr. Sprache,” i. 52 et seq.). Graetz has shown that the use of the dagesh is an-terior to the use of the vowel- points, for which it was, in a measure, a substitute. It distinguished the absolute from the construct state, the quiescent shewa from the mobile, and at times stood in place of the “ matres lectionis.” The regular use of the dagesh and its representation by means of a point seem to be a peculiarity of the Tiberian vowel- sys-tem. In the so- called superlinear, or Babylonian, sys-tem, the point was originally not used at all, nor was dagesh indicated in all cases which required it. In Berlin MS. Or. quart. 680, which, according to Kahle, originally contained the true Babylonian punctua-tion, the dagesh has the form . It is used with the six letters úôëãâá, in such cases as require regularly the dagesh forte, but generally only where a mistake might be made; also in the letter resh, in alef when that letter is consonantal; and with lamed, especial-ly in enclitic words. The dagesh is found four times with the alef in the Masoretic system ( Stade, “ Der Masoretische Text,” § 42b) and often in the Karl-sruhe MS. ( see “ Proc. Fifth Or. Congress,” II. i. 136). DAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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409 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ D’, DA, DE: In the alphabetical arrangement of names the above prefixes have been disregard-ed; consequently d’Aguilar will be found as Agui-lar, d’; Da Costa as Costa, Da; etc.] DABBASHETH: A town on the border- line of Zebulun ( Josh. xix. 11). It has been identified by Conder with Dabsheh, the ruins of which are near the hills east of Acco. The Septuagint reading is ÂáéèÜñáâá. E. G. H. G. B. L. DABERATH: A town on the eastern boundary of Zebulun ( Josh. xix. 12), but belonging to the do-main of Issachar, and assigned to the Levites ( Josh. xxi. 28; I Chron. vi. 58). It is the modern Deburich, an important strategic position at the foot of Mount Tabor and overlooking the entrance into the great plain of Esdraelon. It was here, perhaps, that Barak mustered his troops ( G. A. Smith, “ Hist. Geog. of the Holy Land,” p. 394). From Josephus (“ B. J.” ii. 21, § 3) it is known that a Jewish garri-son was placed here for the purpose of watching the plain. The name occurs in a slightly altered form in the Talmud ( Neubauer, “ G. T.” p. 265). Moore conjectures that Deborah was a native of this place ( see Buhl, “ Geographie des Alten Paläs-tina,” p. 216). E. G. H. G. B. L. DACOSTA, ISAAC- FRANCIS: Musician and composer; born at Bordeaux Jan. 17, 1778; died there Nov. 29, 1864. He was a pupil of the Musical Conservatory in 1798. Later, while first cornet at the opera in Paris, he was vice- leader of the Musique des Gardes du Corps, under Louis XVIII. He wrote several romances and concertos. Meyerbeer composed for him, in 1836, the clarinet solo in the fifth act of “ The Huguenots.” He is be-lieved to have been the son of the musician Samu-el- Franco Dacosta, who was arraigned before the revolutionary tribunal at Bordeaux in 1794. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Edouard Féret, Statistique de la Gironde, iii. 162; Aurel Vivie, Hist. de la Terreur á Bordeaux, ii. 343– 401. G. C. DE B. DAGESH: The diacritical point placed in the center of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet to indicate either their intensified ( doubled) pronun-ciation, or, in the case of the letters úôëãâá ( b, g, d, k, p, t), their hard ( unaspirated) pronunciation. The root “ dagash” means in Syriac “ to prick” ( com-pare Targ. to Prov. xii. 18); but the context in which the term “ dagesh” first occurs militates against deriving it from this signification of the root. The use of “ dagesh” as the name of the point indicating the intensified pronunciation is only a secondary one, for in the old Masoretic texts and in the Mahzor Vitry ( ed. Horowitz, p. 228), “ dagesh” indicates the intensified pronunciation itself, in contrast to “ rafe,” the weak pronunciation. The root “ dagash” occurs only once in the traditional literature, in a reference to the letter ã ( d) of the word ãçà (“ ehad,” Deut. vi. 4), and that, too, in a Czestionev Dagesh sentence of the Palestinian Talmud which is known only from a later quotation ( Tur Orah Hayyim, lxi.). A reference to the dagesh, though without the use of the specific term, is to be found in the Pesikta Rabbati and in “ Sefer Yezirah.” From the Masorah the word passed into the ter-minology of the grammarians in its earlier sense, as, for instance, in Ben Asher and Saadia Gaon. The latter called one part of his grammatical work “ The Book of Dagesh and Rafe”; preserving, as did the Karaite lexicographer David b. Abraham, even in the Arabic text the Hebrew- Aramaic terms. Saadia uses Arabic noun and verb forms derived from the word. Hayyuj uses in their stead the corresponding Arabic terms “ shadid,” “ mushaddad,” “ khafif,” “ mukhaffaf”; and he was followed in this by others writing in Arabic. From the time of Abraham ibn Ezra, howev-er, philologists writing in Hebrew reestablished the use of the word “ dagesh,” from which various nom-inal and verbal forms were derived and added to the terminology of Hebrew grammar. There is no trace among the early writers of a classification of the various uses to which the dagesh was put, such as became customary later, though the relation in which the six letters úôëãâá stood to the dagesh was of course emphasized; the letter ø, because of its double pronunciation by the Palestinians, was added to the six in “ Sefer Yezi-rah” and in Ben Asher. The term “ dagesh kal” ( light dagesh), to denote the hard unaspirated pronunci-ation of the letters úôëãâá, occurs perhaps first in David Kimhi’s “ Miklol” ( ed. Venice, 1545, p. 49a). The rules for the “ dagesh hazak” ( strong dagesh, that denoting a doubling of the letter) were first formulated by Elijah Levita (“ Perek Shirah,” 54a et seq.), who enumerates eight cases in which it oc-curs. Later grammarians have superseded this divi-sion by a more extended one ( see König, “ Lehrge-bäude der Hebr. Sprache,” i. 52 et seq.). Graetz has shown that the use of the dagesh is an-terior to the use of the vowel- points, for which it was, in a measure, a substitute. It distinguished the absolute from the construct state, the quiescent shewa from the mobile, and at times stood in place of the “ matres lectionis.” The regular use of the dagesh and its representation by means of a point seem to be a peculiarity of the Tiberian vowel- sys-tem. In the so- called superlinear, or Babylonian, sys-tem, the point was originally not used at all, nor was dagesh indicated in all cases which required it. In Berlin MS. Or. quart. 680, which, according to Kahle, originally contained the true Babylonian punctua-tion, the dagesh has the form . It is used with the six letters úôëãâá, in such cases as require regularly the dagesh forte, but generally only where a mistake might be made; also in the letter resh, in alef when that letter is consonantal; and with lamed, especial-ly in enclitic words. The dagesh is found four times with the alef in the Masoretic system ( Stade, “ Der Masoretische Text,” § 42b) and often in the Karl-sruhe MS. ( see “ Proc. Fifth Or. Congress,” II. i. 136). D Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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