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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 380 CHUETAS. Officially they were known as “ New Chris-tians,” and there was considerable legislation direct-ed against them in both Spain and Portugal and in their colonies, the chief activity of the Inquisition being directed against them. It is stated that Maran-os are to be found even at the present day, especial-ly at Covilhão in Portugal. It also appears that there are, or have been, sev-eral classes of Crypto- Jews in Moslem lands; thus the ancestors of the DAGGATUNS probably kept up their Jewish practises a long time after their nom-inal adoption of Mohammedanism. This was also done by the Maimins of Salonica ( Grätz, in “ Monatsschrift,” Feb., 1884), and near Khorassan there still remain a number of Jews known as the “ Jedid al- Islam,” who were converted to Moham-medanism half a century ago (“ Il Vessillo Israeliti-co,” April, 1884). G. J. CRYSTAL. See GLASS. CSEMEGI, KARL: President of the Hungarian Supreme Court of Judicature; born in Csongrad May 3, 1826; died March 18, 1899. Csemegi received his early education in the schools of Szegedin and Bu-dapest. By order of Count Elemer Batthyanyi he organized a battalion of infantry in the Hungarian war of independence of 1848, at the head of which he fought throughout the whole war. After the con-clusion of the campaign in the Bácska and Banat districts, he laid down his arms at Lugos, and as punishment was placed in an Austrian regiment, but was soon released on account of ill health. During the absolutist era he had a large law- office in Arad, but was compelled by the chicanery of Austrian of-ficials to transfer it to Butyin in Rumania. After the restoration of the former constitution, the Hungarian minister of justice, Balthasar Hor-vath, called him into the ministry, where a wide field presented itself for the employment of his ability. From ministerial secretary he became state secretary, in which capacity he proposed and cod-ified chapter iv. of the laws of 1869, on the legal power and authority of judges. The incorporation of the judiciary of Fiume with that of Hungary was also his work. His epoch- making achievement in the judicial administration of Hungary was, howev-er, the codification of the criminal law on a mod-ern basis. Through this work he succeeded in fundamentally improving legal procedure in Hunga-ry. Especially important was the comprehensive statement which he annexed to the code explain-ing the basic principles that underlie it, which statement contains a mass of legal knowledge still of much value. His influence left a distinct impress on the science of criminology, which developed rapidly after the adoption of his code. Csemegi became president of the Supreme Court in 1879, and founded the Society of Hungarian Ju-rists, which to- day has among its members the most eminent jurists of modern Hungary. He was decorated with the Cross of the Order of St. Stephan of Hungary in 1878, and in 1882 became privy councilor. Twelve years later he resigned his position as president of the Supreme Court. He was granted the honorary degree of LL. D. by the jurid-ical faculty of the University of Budapest in 1896. Csemegi was a convert to Christianity. His liter-ary work includes: “ A Jogvesztés Elmélete és az Államjog,” Budapest, 1872; “ A Magyar Bünvádi Eljárás Szervezetének Indokai,” Budapest, 1882; “ Magyar Bünvádi Eljárás a Törvényszékek Elött,” Budapest, 1883; “ Az Egyházi Holtkéz,” Budapest, 1897. The French government had the statement of principles which he subjoined to the Hungarian criminal code translated into French under the ti-tle “ Code Penal Hongrois des Crimes et des Délits,” Paris, 1885. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pester Lloyd, March 19, 1899; Pesti Naplo, same date; Vasarnapi Ujsag, March, 1899. S. M. W. CSILLAG, ROSA: Hungarian opera- singer; born about 1840. She attracted much attention in the chorus of the Hungarian National Theater at Budapest. Trained by Professor Proch, she made her first appearance in 1858 as Fides in Meyer-beer’s “ Le Prophèite,” in the court opera- house of Vienna, where she delighted her audiences with her beautiful mezzo- soprano voice. Until 1873 Csillag belonged to the cast of the Vienna Royal Opera- House, and was a general favorite. On her tours also she met with much success. Her husband was the celebrated prestidigitator Hermann. When her voice began to fail she became singing teacher at the Vienna Conservatoire. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pallas Lexikon, iv. S. M. W. CSILLAG, THERESE: Hungarian actress; born at Duna- Adony May 17, 1862. For many years she was a popular comedienne at the National Theater in Budapest. At the age of thirteen she at-tended the dramatic school in that city. In 1879 she was engaged at the National Theater, where she played in ingenue roles up to 1898. Nearly all Hun-garian playwrights of her day wrote special rôles for her, among them being Gregor Csiky, in whose plays she always excelled. Since 1899 she has been engaged at the Vigszinhaz in Budapest. She has em-braced the Christian faith. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Magyar Szalon, 1886. S. M. W. CUBA: An island in the Atlantic Ocean, the larg-est of the West Indian groups. The relations of the Jews with the island of Cuba date from the dis-covery of the island by Columbus in 1492, several Jews having accompanied him on his first voyage ( see AMERICA, THE DISCOVERY OF). On Nov. 2, 1492, Columbus sent Luis de TORRES, together with a com-panion, into the interior to ascertain the character of the island and of its people, and to find its king. Kayserling (“ Christopher Columbus,” p. 95) asserts that Luis de Torres settled in Cuba and died there. The records of the Inquisition in America, thus far published only in fragments, are the chief sourc-es of information about Jews in Cuba. Jewish wom-en, forcibly baptized, and sent to the West Indies by the Spanish authorities, seem to have been among the earliest settlers. In 1613 the Inquisition wrung from Francisco Gomez de Leon of Havana the con-fession that he was a Jew; as a consequence he underwent martyrdom for his faith, and the Inqui-sition confiscated his fortune, amounting to 149,000 Crystal CubaAac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA 380 CHUETAS. Officially they were known as “ New Chris-tians,” and there was considerable legislation direct-ed against them in both Spain and Portugal and in their colonies, the chief activity of the Inquisition being directed against them. It is stated that Maran-os are to be found even at the present day, especial-ly at Covilhão in Portugal. It also appears that there are, or have been, sev-eral classes of Crypto- Jews in Moslem lands; thus the ancestors of the DAGGATUNS probably kept up their Jewish practises a long time after their nom-inal adoption of Mohammedanism. This was also done by the Maimins of Salonica ( Grätz, in “ Monatsschrift,” Feb., 1884), and near Khorassan there still remain a number of Jews known as the “ Jedid al- Islam,” who were converted to Moham-medanism half a century ago (“ Il Vessillo Israeliti-co,” April, 1884). G. J. CRYSTAL. See GLASS. CSEMEGI, KARL: President of the Hungarian Supreme Court of Judicature; born in Csongrad May 3, 1826; died March 18, 1899. Csemegi received his early education in the schools of Szegedin and Bu-dapest. By order of Count Elemer Batthyanyi he organized a battalion of infantry in the Hungarian war of independence of 1848, at the head of which he fought throughout the whole war. After the con-clusion of the campaign in the Bácska and Banat districts, he laid down his arms at Lugos, and as punishment was placed in an Austrian regiment, but was soon released on account of ill health. During the absolutist era he had a large law- office in Arad, but was compelled by the chicanery of Austrian of-ficials to transfer it to Butyin in Rumania. After the restoration of the former constitution, the Hungarian minister of justice, Balthasar Hor-vath, called him into the ministry, where a wide field presented itself for the employment of his ability. From ministerial secretary he became state secretary, in which capacity he proposed and cod-ified chapter iv. of the laws of 1869, on the legal power and authority of judges. The incorporation of the judiciary of Fiume with that of Hungary was also his work. His epoch- making achievement in the judicial administration of Hungary was, howev-er, the codification of the criminal law on a mod-ern basis. Through this work he succeeded in fundamentally improving legal procedure in Hunga-ry. Especially important was the comprehensive statement which he annexed to the code explain-ing the basic principles that underlie it, which statement contains a mass of legal knowledge still of much value. His influence left a distinct impress on the science of criminology, which developed rapidly after the adoption of his code. Csemegi became president of the Supreme Court in 1879, and founded the Society of Hungarian Ju-rists, which to- day has among its members the most eminent jurists of modern Hungary. He was decorated with the Cross of the Order of St. Stephan of Hungary in 1878, and in 1882 became privy councilor. Twelve years later he resigned his position as president of the Supreme Court. He was granted the honorary degree of LL. D. by the jurid-ical faculty of the University of Budapest in 1896. Csemegi was a convert to Christianity. His liter-ary work includes: “ A Jogvesztés Elmélete és az Államjog,” Budapest, 1872; “ A Magyar Bünvádi Eljárás Szervezetének Indokai,” Budapest, 1882; “ Magyar Bünvádi Eljárás a Törvényszékek Elött,” Budapest, 1883; “ Az Egyházi Holtkéz,” Budapest, 1897. The French government had the statement of principles which he subjoined to the Hungarian criminal code translated into French under the ti-tle “ Code Penal Hongrois des Crimes et des Délits,” Paris, 1885. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pester Lloyd, March 19, 1899; Pesti Naplo, same date; Vasarnapi Ujsag, March, 1899. S. M. W. CSILLAG, ROSA: Hungarian opera- singer; born about 1840. She attracted much attention in the chorus of the Hungarian National Theater at Budapest. Trained by Professor Proch, she made her first appearance in 1858 as Fides in Meyer-beer’s “ Le Prophèite,” in the court opera- house of Vienna, where she delighted her audiences with her beautiful mezzo- soprano voice. Until 1873 Csillag belonged to the cast of the Vienna Royal Opera- House, and was a general favorite. On her tours also she met with much success. Her husband was the celebrated prestidigitator Hermann. When her voice began to fail she became singing teacher at the Vienna Conservatoire. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Pallas Lexikon, iv. S. M. W. CSILLAG, THERESE: Hungarian actress; born at Duna- Adony May 17, 1862. For many years she was a popular comedienne at the National Theater in Budapest. At the age of thirteen she at-tended the dramatic school in that city. In 1879 she was engaged at the National Theater, where she played in ingenue roles up to 1898. Nearly all Hun-garian playwrights of her day wrote special rôles for her, among them being Gregor Csiky, in whose plays she always excelled. Since 1899 she has been engaged at the Vigszinhaz in Budapest. She has em-braced the Christian faith. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Magyar Szalon, 1886. S. M. W. CUBA: An island in the Atlantic Ocean, the larg-est of the West Indian groups. The relations of the Jews with the island of Cuba date from the dis-covery of the island by Columbus in 1492, several Jews having accompanied him on his first voyage ( see AMERICA, THE DISCOVERY OF). On Nov. 2, 1492, Columbus sent Luis de TORRES, together with a com-panion, into the interior to ascertain the character of the island and of its people, and to find its king. Kayserling (“ Christopher Columbus,” p. 95) asserts that Luis de Torres settled in Cuba and died there. The records of the Inquisition in America, thus far published only in fragments, are the chief sourc-es of information about Jews in Cuba. Jewish wom-en, forcibly baptized, and sent to the West Indies by the Spanish authorities, seem to have been among the earliest settlers. In 1613 the Inquisition wrung from Francisco Gomez de Leon of Havana the con-fession that he was a Jew; as a consequence he underwent martyrdom for his faith, and the Inqui-sition confiscated his fortune, amounting to 149,000 Crystal Cuba Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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