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325 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
325 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA and frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy. He died at sea in 1895, while on his way home from Hobart Town, Tasmania, where he had been for some years engaged in the practise of his art. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jewish Chronicle, London, Aug. 16, 1895; The Times, London, Aug. 9, 1895. J. G. L. COWEN, PHILIP: Jewish publisher and com-munal worker; born in New York city in 1853; ed-ucated in the public schools; was one of the found-ers and publisher of “ The American Hebrew” ( see AMERICAN HEBREW), and has published several works of importance in American Jewish literature. He was interested in the organization of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association, active in caring for the Russian Jewish immigrants in 1881– 82, and col-lected the Jewish church statistics for the census of 1890. In 1902 Cowen was appointed supervisor of “ The City Record,” an important office in the city government of New York. A. S. COZBI (“ deceiving”): A Midianitish woman, daughter of Zur, the leader of a tribe. She was put to death along with the Israelite Zimri by Phinehas ( Num. xxv. 14– 18). E. G. H. G. B. L. CRACOW ( Polish, Kraków): A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Po-land; founded about 700 C. E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cra-cow, but it is probable that the Jews gained a foot-hold in the city after the German inhabitants had forfeited their privileges by a revolt against King Ladislaus Lokietek ( the Short) in 1311, and that their position became more secure when that mon-arch removed his capital from Gnesen to Cracow ( 1312). The ruins of the palace of Lobzow, where Casimir the Great was said to have spent his leisure time with his beautiful Jewish mistress ESTERKA, are near Cracow, and a large mound of earth in the gar-den was reverenced as her grave as late as the first half of the nineteenth century. The only record of that period is the massacre in 1348, at the time of the Black Death riots. Records show that the Jews owned houses and lived in Cracow at the end of the fourteenth century, and that King JAGIELLO ( or Jag-ellon) in 1400 bought from the Jew Jossman one of the stone houses which formed the new university ( Sternberg, “ Gesch. der Juden in Polen,” p. 87). Ri-ots against Jews occurred during the Easter week of 1407, when the mobs were incited by the priest BUDEK. The Jewish quarter was fired; and in the con-flagration a Church and several streets inhabited by Christians were destroyed. The visit of CAPISTRANO ( Aug., 1453, to May, 1454) had there the same disastrous results for the Jews as it had in other places which he visited ( see Responsa of R. M. Minz, No. 63, Cracow, 1617). In 1464 the Jews of Cracow were plundered, and thirty of them killed, by Crusaders. The attacks and riots became so fre-quent that King John Albert, in 1494, ordered the Jews of Cracow to settle in the present suburb of Kazimierz, which was then a separate city, and it has remained the Jewish quarter ever since. The Juden-gasse of Cracow proper is the only witness to the fact that Jews lived there before they were confined to Kazimierz. The change gave them no greater se-curity, for their new quarters were attacked with the usual results as soon as the king left the capital. The students of the Cracow University were gen-erally prominent in attacks on the Jews, and their persecutions led to the establishment of relations between the Jews and the authorities of the univer-sity, in the records of which the Jews of Cracow are first met with as a corporate body. A Jewish banker was appointed to lend money to students on pledges, and being appointed by the rector, he had the title of privileged servant of the university. In this way the banker became the protector of his fellows against the insults and cruelties of the stu-dents. A tax, at first irregularly collected, was also imposed upon the Jews of Cracow for the purchase of books and writing, material for the students. This tax, known as “” kozubalec,” developed into a form of blackmail, levied under the guise of pro-tecting them from attacks by the students. Little is known of the communal and intellectual life of the Jews of Cracow until the sixteenth cen-tury, when both appear well developed under the rule of Sigismund I. ( 1506– 48), who first reduced to order the administration of Jewish affairs in his dominions. It is believed that R. Jacob POLLAK, who later became rabbi of Prague, stood, in his younger days, at the head of the Jewish community of Cra-cow ( Dembitzer, “ Kelilat Yofi,” Preface); but the first rabbi of Cracow known as such is R. Asher, the grandfather of R. Meïr ( MaHRaM) LUBLIN. In his time ( he was there as early as 1507, and died about 1532) there were in Cracow a number of Bohemian Jews, under a rabbi named R. Perez. As the result of a dispute between them and the Polish commu-nity under R. Asher, King Sigismund decided in 1519 that the latter owned the synagogue and could pre-vent the Bohemians from entering it. Those times, although not entirely free from vio-lence and persecution, were probably the best which the Jews of Cracow ever enjoyed under Polish rule. Though legally confined to Kazimierz, Jews had places of business in all the principal thor-oughfares of Cracow, and even on the Ringplatz. Large penalties were imposed on the city for every riot or act of violence against the Jews. This law, however, passed by the Diet at the instance of Chan-cellor Christoph Szydlowiecki, fell into disuse, and was suspended by Sigismund in 1536. He neverthe-less refused to grant the demand of the German merchants, in 1542, that the number of Jews in Cracow be limited, or to listen to their complaint that the Jews sent money out of the country by import-ing goods from Wallachia ( Grätz, “ Gesch.” ix. 432); showing therein his willingness to protect the Jews of his capital against unjust discrimination. The waywode Peter Kmit, who rose in influence under Bona Sforza, Sigismund’s second wife, did at one time spread the report that the Diet intended to grant to the Jews of Cracow complete liberty of commerce, but this was done for the purpose of ex-torting money from the Christian merchants. In 1539 Katharina Zelazewska, the widow of an alderman Cowen Cracow Fifteenth Century. Sixteenth Century.Aac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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325 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA and frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy. He died at sea in 1895, while on his way home from Hobart Town, Tasmania, where he had been for some years engaged in the practise of his art. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jewish Chronicle, London, Aug. 16, 1895; The Times, London, Aug. 9, 1895. J. G. L. COWEN, PHILIP: Jewish publisher and com-munal worker; born in New York city in 1853; ed-ucated in the public schools; was one of the found-ers and publisher of “ The American Hebrew” ( see AMERICAN HEBREW), and has published several works of importance in American Jewish literature. He was interested in the organization of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association, active in caring for the Russian Jewish immigrants in 1881– 82, and col-lected the Jewish church statistics for the census of 1890. In 1902 Cowen was appointed supervisor of “ The City Record,” an important office in the city government of New York. A. S. COZBI (“ deceiving”): A Midianitish woman, daughter of Zur, the leader of a tribe. She was put to death along with the Israelite Zimri by Phinehas ( Num. xxv. 14– 18). E. G. H. G. B. L. CRACOW ( Polish, Kraków): A city of Galicia, Austria, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Po-land; founded about 700 C. E. There are no records of the early history of the Jewish community of Cra-cow, but it is probable that the Jews gained a foot-hold in the city after the German inhabitants had forfeited their privileges by a revolt against King Ladislaus Lokietek ( the Short) in 1311, and that their position became more secure when that mon-arch removed his capital from Gnesen to Cracow ( 1312). The ruins of the palace of Lobzow, where Casimir the Great was said to have spent his leisure time with his beautiful Jewish mistress ESTERKA, are near Cracow, and a large mound of earth in the gar-den was reverenced as her grave as late as the first half of the nineteenth century. The only record of that period is the massacre in 1348, at the time of the Black Death riots. Records show that the Jews owned houses and lived in Cracow at the end of the fourteenth century, and that King JAGIELLO ( or Jag-ellon) in 1400 bought from the Jew Jossman one of the stone houses which formed the new university ( Sternberg, “ Gesch. der Juden in Polen,” p. 87). Ri-ots against Jews occurred during the Easter week of 1407, when the mobs were incited by the priest BUDEK. The Jewish quarter was fired; and in the con-flagration a Church and several streets inhabited by Christians were destroyed. The visit of CAPISTRANO ( Aug., 1453, to May, 1454) had there the same disastrous results for the Jews as it had in other places which he visited ( see Responsa of R. M. Minz, No. 63, Cracow, 1617). In 1464 the Jews of Cracow were plundered, and thirty of them killed, by Crusaders. The attacks and riots became so fre-quent that King John Albert, in 1494, ordered the Jews of Cracow to settle in the present suburb of Kazimierz, which was then a separate city, and it has remained the Jewish quarter ever since. The Juden-gasse of Cracow proper is the only witness to the fact that Jews lived there before they were confined to Kazimierz. The change gave them no greater se-curity, for their new quarters were attacked with the usual results as soon as the king left the capital. The students of the Cracow University were gen-erally prominent in attacks on the Jews, and their persecutions led to the establishment of relations between the Jews and the authorities of the univer-sity, in the records of which the Jews of Cracow are first met with as a corporate body. A Jewish banker was appointed to lend money to students on pledges, and being appointed by the rector, he had the title of privileged servant of the university. In this way the banker became the protector of his fellows against the insults and cruelties of the stu-dents. A tax, at first irregularly collected, was also imposed upon the Jews of Cracow for the purchase of books and writing, material for the students. This tax, known as “” kozubalec,” developed into a form of blackmail, levied under the guise of pro-tecting them from attacks by the students. Little is known of the communal and intellectual life of the Jews of Cracow until the sixteenth cen-tury, when both appear well developed under the rule of Sigismund I. ( 1506– 48), who first reduced to order the administration of Jewish affairs in his dominions. It is believed that R. Jacob POLLAK, who later became rabbi of Prague, stood, in his younger days, at the head of the Jewish community of Cra-cow ( Dembitzer, “ Kelilat Yofi,” Preface); but the first rabbi of Cracow known as such is R. Asher, the grandfather of R. Meïr ( MaHRaM) LUBLIN. In his time ( he was there as early as 1507, and died about 1532) there were in Cracow a number of Bohemian Jews, under a rabbi named R. Perez. As the result of a dispute between them and the Polish commu-nity under R. Asher, King Sigismund decided in 1519 that the latter owned the synagogue and could pre-vent the Bohemians from entering it. Those times, although not entirely free from vio-lence and persecution, were probably the best which the Jews of Cracow ever enjoyed under Polish rule. Though legally confined to Kazimierz, Jews had places of business in all the principal thor-oughfares of Cracow, and even on the Ringplatz. Large penalties were imposed on the city for every riot or act of violence against the Jews. This law, however, passed by the Diet at the instance of Chan-cellor Christoph Szydlowiecki, fell into disuse, and was suspended by Sigismund in 1536. He neverthe-less refused to grant the demand of the German merchants, in 1542, that the number of Jews in Cracow be limited, or to listen to their complaint that the Jews sent money out of the country by import-ing goods from Wallachia ( Grätz, “ Gesch.” ix. 432); showing therein his willingness to protect the Jews of his capital against unjust discrimination. The waywode Peter Kmit, who rose in influence under Bona Sforza, Sigismund’s second wife, did at one time spread the report that the Diet intended to grant to the Jews of Cracow complete liberty of commerce, but this was done for the purpose of ex-torting money from the Christian merchants. In 1539 Katharina Zelazewska, the widow of an alderman Cowen Cracow Fifteenth Century. Sixteenth Century. Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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