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Benedict VIII. 7 Benedict

by Isidore Singer
Benedict VIII. 7 Benedict, Moses THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA By a decree dated Sept. 16 of the same year, Benedict forbade converted married Jews to di­vorce their wives according to Jewish law. At the request of the Jewish community of Rome ( pre­sented in Feb., 1751) to allow its members to fre­quent the market and to live outside the ghetto, Benedict renewed the severe project elaborated by the Inquisition in 1732, according to which a Jew was not permitted to pass a single night away from the ghetto. Notwithstanding this, Benedict was far from be­ing hostile to the Jews. On all occasions, except in the matter of conversion, he showed sympathy with them. When persecutions broke out in Poland he energetically defended the Jews and enjoined the Polish archbishop and primate to protect them. In Italy Benedict was especially hostile to He- brew books. The censor Constanzi prepared in 1748 a new list of forbidden books. Benedict ordered all those enumerated therein to be seized and confis­cated; and on Sept. 15, 1751, this decree was en- forced. It having been rumored that the Jews smug­gled prohibited books into the ghetto, Benedict or­dered a strict search of the houses, with the result that a general confiscation ensued. Later he gave directions to Constanzi to revise the “ Sefer ha- Zik­kuk” ( Book of Expurgation) and to add to it an In­dex Expurgatorius, comprising a new series of books to be forbidden. In Holy Week of 1756 the body of a child was found at Jampol, Poland, and a blood accusation fol­lowed by persecutions ensued. To free themselves and all other Jews from the oft- repeated accusation, the Polish Jews sent Jacob Selek to Benedict to pro- cure an official exposure of the falsehood of the charge. Benedict charged the counselor of the holy office, Lorenzo Ganganelli— later Pope Clement XIV.— to report on this subject; and on March 21, 1758, the acquittal of the Jews was pronounced. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Literaturlblatt des Orients, 1841, p. 259; Re­vue Orientale, iii. 157; Revue des Etudes Juives, iii. 107, 108; Berliner, Censur und Confiscation, p. 25; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, ii. 241– 247; Pop- per, The Censorship of Hebrew Books, pp. 120, 126. G. I. BR. BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS: Composer, con­ductor, and teacher of music; born at Stuttgart Nov. 27, 1804; died in London June 5, 1885. Showing con­siderable musical talent as a boy, he became, at the age of fifteen, the pupil of Hummel at Weimar, and was introduced by him to Beethoven. In 1821 he went to Dresden to study musical composition un­der Weber, who treated him like a son. Having filled conductors’ posts at Vienna from 1823 to 1825, he went with Barbaja to Italy in the latter year, and obtained an appointment as conductor at Naples, where he produced two of his own operas, “ Gracinta ed Ernesto” and “ I Porthocesi in Goa.” In 1885 he went from Paris to London, where he re- sided till his death. He was conductor at the Lyceum in 1836 and at Drury Lane in 1838, where some of his own chief works for the operatic stage were produced. After visiting America with Jenny Lind in 1850, he became successively conductor at Her Majesty’s Theater and at Drury Lane. Sir Julius held a prominent position in the musical world for up- ward of forty years, as conductor and as teacher. He contributed much to the initial success of the Monday Popular Concerts at St. James’ Hall. He was knighted in 1871; and, among other distinctions, was decorated by the emperor of Austria in 1874, and made knight commander of the Or­der of Frederick by the king of Württemberg. He was twice married. Among his composi­tions are: a one- act op­eretta, “ Un Anno ed un Giorno,” produced at the Lyceum in 1836; “ The Gypsy’s Warning,” 1838; “ The Bride of Ven­ice,” 1843; “ The Crusad­ers,” 1846, produced at Drury Lane; “ Undine,” a cantata produced in 1860 at the Norwich Festival, of which he was for many years conductor; “ The Lily of Killarney,” 1862, his most successful opera, the libretto to which was founded upon Boucicault’s “ Colleen Bawn”; an operetta, “ The Bride of Song,” performed in 1864; “ Richard Coeur de Lion,” 1863, and an oratorio, “ St. Cecilia,” 1866, the last two composed for the Norwich Festival; “ St. Peter,” 1870; and “ Graziella,” 1882, besides sympho­nies and pianoforte music. The recitatives for the Italian version of Weber’s “ Oberon,” which was pro­duced at Drury Lane in 1865, were also written by Sir Julius. BIBLIOGRAPHY : Dictionary of National Biography; Grove, Dictionary of Music, s. v.; London newspapers, June 6, 1885; Hervey, Celebrated Musicians. J. G. L. BENEDICT, MARCUS. See BENET, MORDECAI. BENEDICT, MOSES: German banker and artist; born in 1772 at Stuttgart, Germany; died there July 8, 1852. He was destined for the profes­sion of sculptor. With his brother Seligmann Löb he was sent in 1785 to the Karlsschule in Stuttgart. Later on the two conducted the banking business of Benedict Brothers. Moses showed considerable tal­ent for art, and as a painter of miniatures was particularly clever. He was an intimate friend of the painter Christian Gottlieb Schick, with whom he corresponded for years. Bibliography: Schwäbische Chronik, Nov. 15, 1865. S. M. K. BENEDICT, NAPHTALI. See BENET, NAPHTALI. BENEDICT OF YORK: Leading member of the Jewish community in York, England, at the end of the twelfth century; died in 1189. Together with Josce of York he attended the coronation of Rich­ard I., and in the riot which took place on that oc­casion was forced to submit to baptism, when he took the name of “ William.” Afterward he appealed to the king, who permitted him to return to his re­ligion, though this was against the canon laws. His Sir Julius Benedict.Aac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe        P  a g   V  ie w Search | F i n d    |   H o m e |    I n  d  e  x         P  a g   V  ie w

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Benedict VIII. 7 Benedict, Moses THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA By a decree dated Sept. 16 of the same year, Benedict forbade converted married Jews to di­vorce their wives according to Jewish law. At the request of the Jewish community of Rome ( pre­sented in Feb., 1751) to allow its members to fre­quent the market and to live outside the ghetto, Benedict renewed the severe project elaborated by the Inquisition in 1732, according to which a Jew was not permitted to pass a single night away from the ghetto. Notwithstanding this, Benedict was far from be­ing hostile to the Jews. On all occasions, except in the matter of conversion, he showed sympathy with them. When persecutions broke out in Poland he energetically defended the Jews and enjoined the Polish archbishop and primate to protect them. In Italy Benedict was especially hostile to He- brew books. The censor Constanzi prepared in 1748 a new list of forbidden books. Benedict ordered all those enumerated therein to be seized and confis­cated; and on Sept. 15, 1751, this decree was en- forced. It having been rumored that the Jews smug­gled prohibited books into the ghetto, Benedict or­dered a strict search of the houses, with the result that a general confiscation ensued. Later he gave directions to Constanzi to revise the “ Sefer ha- Zik­kuk” ( Book of Expurgation) and to add to it an In­dex Expurgatorius, comprising a new series of books to be forbidden. In Holy Week of 1756 the body of a child was found at Jampol, Poland, and a blood accusation fol­lowed by persecutions ensued. To free themselves and all other Jews from the oft- repeated accusation, the Polish Jews sent Jacob Selek to Benedict to pro- cure an official exposure of the falsehood of the charge. Benedict charged the counselor of the holy office, Lorenzo Ganganelli— later Pope Clement XIV.— to report on this subject; and on March 21, 1758, the acquittal of the Jews was pronounced. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Literaturlblatt des Orients, 1841, p. 259; Re­vue Orientale, iii. 157; Revue des Etudes Juives, iii. 107, 108; Berliner, Censur und Confiscation, p. 25; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, ii. 241– 247; Pop- per, The Censorship of Hebrew Books, pp. 120, 126. G. I. BR. BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS: Composer, con­ductor, and teacher of music; born at Stuttgart Nov. 27, 1804; died in London June 5, 1885. Showing con­siderable musical talent as a boy, he became, at the age of fifteen, the pupil of Hummel at Weimar, and was introduced by him to Beethoven. In 1821 he went to Dresden to study musical composition un­der Weber, who treated him like a son. Having filled conductors’ posts at Vienna from 1823 to 1825, he went with Barbaja to Italy in the latter year, and obtained an appointment as conductor at Naples, where he produced two of his own operas, “ Gracinta ed Ernesto” and “ I Porthocesi in Goa.” In 1885 he went from Paris to London, where he re- sided till his death. He was conductor at the Lyceum in 1836 and at Drury Lane in 1838, where some of his own chief works for the operatic stage were produced. After visiting America with Jenny Lind in 1850, he became successively conductor at Her Majesty’s Theater and at Drury Lane. Sir Julius held a prominent position in the musical world for up- ward of forty years, as conductor and as teacher. He contributed much to the initial success of the Monday Popular Concerts at St. James’ Hall. He was knighted in 1871; and, among other distinctions, was decorated by the emperor of Austria in 1874, and made knight commander of the Or­der of Frederick by the king of Württemberg. He was twice married. Among his composi­tions are: a one- act op­eretta, “ Un Anno ed un Giorno,” produced at the Lyceum in 1836; “ The Gypsy’s Warning,” 1838; “ The Bride of Ven­ice,” 1843; “ The Crusad­ers,” 1846, produced at Drury Lane; “ Undine,” a cantata produced in 1860 at the Norwich Festival, of which he was for many years conductor; “ The Lily of Killarney,” 1862, his most successful opera, the libretto to which was founded upon Boucicault’s “ Colleen Bawn”; an operetta, “ The Bride of Song,” performed in 1864; “ Richard Coeur de Lion,” 1863, and an oratorio, “ St. Cecilia,” 1866, the last two composed for the Norwich Festival; “ St. Peter,” 1870; and “ Graziella,” 1882, besides sympho­nies and pianoforte music. The recitatives for the Italian version of Weber’s “ Oberon,” which was pro­duced at Drury Lane in 1865, were also written by Sir Julius. BIBLIOGRAPHY : Dictionary of National Biography; Grove, Dictionary of Music, s. v.; London newspapers, June 6, 1885; Hervey, Celebrated Musicians. J. G. L. BENEDICT, MARCUS. See BENET, MORDECAI. BENEDICT, MOSES: German banker and artist; born in 1772 at Stuttgart, Germany; died there July 8, 1852. He was destined for the profes­sion of sculptor. With his brother Seligmann Löb he was sent in 1785 to the Karlsschule in Stuttgart. Later on the two conducted the banking business of Benedict Brothers. Moses showed considerable tal­ent for art, and as a painter of miniatures was particularly clever. He was an intimate friend of the painter Christian Gottlieb Schick, with whom he corresponded for years. Bibliography: Schwäbische Chronik, Nov. 15, 1865. S. M. K. BENEDICT, NAPHTALI. See BENET, NAPHTALI. BENEDICT OF YORK: Leading member of the Jewish community in York, England, at the end of the twelfth century; died in 1189. Together with Josce of York he attended the coronation of Rich­ard I., and in the riot which took place on that oc­casion was forced to submit to baptism, when he took the name of “ William.” Afterward he appealed to the king, who permitted him to return to his re­ligion, though this was against the canon laws. His Sir Julius Benedict. Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe <    <    P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d   |   H o m e |    I n  d  e  x  <    <    P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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