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213 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

by Isidore Singer
213 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA and reason that the elements of wool and linen are diametrically opposed to each other, since the wool has an absorbing and shrinking nature while linen is resistant and non- shrinkable, these con-flicting tendencies neutralizing each other and causing disorder in connection with the effusion of perspiration from the body. Lt appears, however, that sha‘ atnez was permitted in the case of the priesfs girdle, which was interwo-ven with purple, blue, and scarlet wool ( Ex. xxxix. 29); it may be used also in the case of the purple and the blue cord entwined in the zizit, or the woolen zizit on a linen garment ( Yeb. 4b, 5b), as the sacred-ness of the purpose is supposed to protect against any evil effect. The phrase “ lo yahgeru ba- yaza‘ ” (“ they shall not gird themselves with any thing that causeth sweat ”; Ezek. xliv. 18) is interpreted in the Talmud to mean “ they shall not gird themselves around the bent of the body, where sweat effuses most” ( Zeb. 18b). Rabbi is of the opinion that the girdle of the ordinary priest was of sha‘ atnez; R. Eleazar says it was of fine linen. The high priest wore a linen girdle on Yom Kippur and a girdle of sha‘ atnez on all other days ( Yoma 12b). By the Mosaic law sha‘ atnez is prohibited only after it has been carded, woven, and twisted, but the Rabbis prohibit it if it has been subjected to any one of these operations ( Niddah 61b). Hence felt cloth, of mixed wool and linen, is forbidden ( Kil. ix. 9). On the other hand, the Rabbis recognize only sheep’s wool as wool, the finest being that of lambs and rams ( comp. II Kings iii. 4); they exclude camels’ hair, the fur of hares, and the wool of goats. If any of the excluded wools is mixed with sheep’s wool, or spun with it into thread, the character of the material is determined by the proportion of each. If the greater part of it is sheep’s wool, it is reckoned as wool; if the contrary, it is not so regarded, and may be mixed again with linen ( Kil. ix. 1). A woolen garment may be worn over a linen gar-ment, or vice versa, but they may not be knotted or sewed together. Sha‘ atnez is prohibited only when worn as an ordinary garment, for the protection or benefit of the body ( Si-fra, Deut. 232), or for its warmth ( Be-zah 15a), but not if carried on the back as a burden or as merchandise. Cushions and tapestry with which the bare body is not in touch do not come under the prohibition ( Kil. ix. 2). To lie on sha’atnez is permitted by the strict interpretation of the Mosaic law, but, the Rabbis feared lest some part of the sha‘ atnez might fold over and touch part of the body; hence they went to the extreme of declaring that even if only the low-est of ten couch- covers is of sha‘ atnez one may not lie on them ( Yoma 69a). Pillows, if of a kind that leaves no likelihood of their folding over and touch-ing the body, are permitted to be of sha‘ atnez. Felt soles with heels are also permitted ( Bezah 15a), be-cause, they are stiff and do not warm the feet. In later times the Rabbis were inclined to modi-fy the law. Thus sha‘ atnez was permitted to be used in stiff hats (“ Sefer ha- Hinnuk,” section “ Ki Teze,” No. 571). Silk resembling wool, and hemp resem-bling linen, which formerly were forbidden “ for ap-pearance sake” ( Kil. ix. 3), were later permitted in combination with either wool or linen, because “ we now know how to distinguish them.” Hempen thread was manufactured and permitted for use in sewing woolen clothing. A linen admixture is detected during the process of dyeing cloth, as wool absorbs the dye more readily than does linen ( Niddah 61 b). Wool is dis-tinguished from linen by three tests— feeling, burn-ing, and smelling; linen burns in a flame, while wool singes and creates an unpleasant odor. There were special experts employed to detect sha‘ atnez (“ Ha- Karmel,” i., No. 40). The observance of the laws concerhing sha‘ atnez was relaxed in the sixteenth century; and the COUN-CIL OF FOUR LANDS found it necessary to enact ( 1607) a “ takkanah” against sha‘ atnez, especially warning women not to sew woolen trails to linen dresses, nor to sew a velvet strip in front of the dress, as velvet had a linen back ( Grätz, “ Gesch.” vii. 36, Hebrew ed., Warsaw, 1899). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Maimonides, Yad, Kilayim, x.; Tur Yoreh De‘ ah; Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Yoreh De‘ ah, 298– 304; Israel Lip- schütz, Bat-te Kilayim, appended to his commentary on the Mishnah, section Zera‘ im; Ha- Maggid ( 1864), viii., Nos. 20, 35; M. M. Saler, Yalkut Yizhak, ii. 48a, Warsaw, 1899. W. B. J. D. E. SHABABO ( ïééæ), JESHUA: Egyptian scribe and rabbi; lived in the last quarter of the seven-teenth century. His teachers were Rabbis Abraham ha- Levi of Cairo and Joseph Nazir, who afterward became his father- in- law ( see JOSEPH NAZIR, BEN HAYYIM MOSES HA- LEVI). The relation between teach-er and pupil may be inferred from the fact that Abraham ha- Levi included some dissertations of his pupil in his work “ Ginnat Weradim.” The two men differed in opinion, and the pupil answered his teacher in “ Perah Shushan” ( Constantinople. 1732). Besides, he wrote “ Sha‘ are Orah,” “ Sha‘ are Torah,” and a large work in two parts entitled “ Sha‘ are Yeshu‘ ah,” containing responsa. Shababo was for some time a sofer, but resigned this office from religious motives when he was appointed dayyan of Cairo. E. C. L. GRÜ. SHABBAT (“ Sabbath”): Treatise in the Mish-nah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds; devoted chiefly to rules and regulations for the Sabbath. The Scrip-tural passages that treat of the Sabbath and of the laws for its observance, thus forming the exegeti-cal basis of this treatise, are: Ex. xvi. 22 et seq.; xx. 10; xxiii. 12; xxxiv. 21; xxxv. 2, 3; Num. xv. 32 et seq.; Deut. v. 14; Jer. xvii. 21 et seq.; Amos viii. 5; Neh. x. 31, xiii. 15 et seq. Shabbat is the first trea-tise in the mishnaic order Seder Mo‘ ed, and is di-vided into twenty- four chapters, containing 138 paragraphs in all. Ch. i.: Ways in which things may not be brought from a private domain (“ reshut ha- yahid ”) to the public domain (“ reshut ha- rabbim”) and vice versa on the Sabbath ( § 1); things which may not be done on Fri-day afternoon or by lamplight on Friday evening ( § § 2– 3); rules adopted at the council in the upper chamber of Hananiah b. Hezekiah b. Garon ( § 4); additional particulars concerning things which may not be done on Friday ( § § 5– 11). Sforno Shabbat Ex-ceptional Cases. Contents.Aac— Apo  | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa  | God— Ist  | Ita— Leo  | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal  | Tal— Zwe   P  a g   V  ie w Search  | F i n d  | H o m e | I n d e x   P  a g   V  ie w

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213 THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA and reason that the elements of wool and linen are diametrically opposed to each other, since the wool has an absorbing and shrinking nature while linen is resistant and non- shrinkable, these con-flicting tendencies neutralizing each other and causing disorder in connection with the effusion of perspiration from the body. Lt appears, however, that sha‘ atnez was permitted in the case of the priesfs girdle, which was interwo-ven with purple, blue, and scarlet wool ( Ex. xxxix. 29); it may be used also in the case of the purple and the blue cord entwined in the zizit, or the woolen zizit on a linen garment ( Yeb. 4b, 5b), as the sacred-ness of the purpose is supposed to protect against any evil effect. The phrase “ lo yahgeru ba- yaza‘ ” (“ they shall not gird themselves with any thing that causeth sweat ”; Ezek. xliv. 18) is interpreted in the Talmud to mean “ they shall not gird themselves around the bent of the body, where sweat effuses most” ( Zeb. 18b). Rabbi is of the opinion that the girdle of the ordinary priest was of sha‘ atnez; R. Eleazar says it was of fine linen. The high priest wore a linen girdle on Yom Kippur and a girdle of sha‘ atnez on all other days ( Yoma 12b). By the Mosaic law sha‘ atnez is prohibited only after it has been carded, woven, and twisted, but the Rabbis prohibit it if it has been subjected to any one of these operations ( Niddah 61b). Hence felt cloth, of mixed wool and linen, is forbidden ( Kil. ix. 9). On the other hand, the Rabbis recognize only sheep’s wool as wool, the finest being that of lambs and rams ( comp. II Kings iii. 4); they exclude camels’ hair, the fur of hares, and the wool of goats. If any of the excluded wools is mixed with sheep’s wool, or spun with it into thread, the character of the material is determined by the proportion of each. If the greater part of it is sheep’s wool, it is reckoned as wool; if the contrary, it is not so regarded, and may be mixed again with linen ( Kil. ix. 1). A woolen garment may be worn over a linen gar-ment, or vice versa, but they may not be knotted or sewed together. Sha‘ atnez is prohibited only when worn as an ordinary garment, for the protection or benefit of the body ( Si-fra, Deut. 232), or for its warmth ( Be-zah 15a), but not if carried on the back as a burden or as merchandise. Cushions and tapestry with which the bare body is not in touch do not come under the prohibition ( Kil. ix. 2). To lie on sha’atnez is permitted by the strict interpretation of the Mosaic law, but, the Rabbis feared lest some part of the sha‘ atnez might fold over and touch part of the body; hence they went to the extreme of declaring that even if only the low-est of ten couch- covers is of sha‘ atnez one may not lie on them ( Yoma 69a). Pillows, if of a kind that leaves no likelihood of their folding over and touch-ing the body, are permitted to be of sha‘ atnez. Felt soles with heels are also permitted ( Bezah 15a), be-cause, they are stiff and do not warm the feet. In later times the Rabbis were inclined to modi-fy the law. Thus sha‘ atnez was permitted to be used in stiff hats (“ Sefer ha- Hinnuk,” section “ Ki Teze,” No. 571). Silk resembling wool, and hemp resem-bling linen, which formerly were forbidden “ for ap-pearance sake” ( Kil. ix. 3), were later permitted in combination with either wool or linen, because “ we now know how to distinguish them.” Hempen thread was manufactured and permitted for use in sewing woolen clothing. A linen admixture is detected during the process of dyeing cloth, as wool absorbs the dye more readily than does linen ( Niddah 61 b). Wool is dis-tinguished from linen by three tests— feeling, burn-ing, and smelling; linen burns in a flame, while wool singes and creates an unpleasant odor. There were special experts employed to detect sha‘ atnez (“ Ha- Karmel,” i., No. 40). The observance of the laws concerhing sha‘ atnez was relaxed in the sixteenth century; and the COUN-CIL OF FOUR LANDS found it necessary to enact ( 1607) a “ takkanah” against sha‘ atnez, especially warning women not to sew woolen trails to linen dresses, nor to sew a velvet strip in front of the dress, as velvet had a linen back ( Grätz, “ Gesch.” vii. 36, Hebrew ed., Warsaw, 1899). BIBLIOGRAPHY: Maimonides, Yad, Kilayim, x.; Tur Yoreh De‘ ah; Shulhan ‘ Aruk, Yoreh De‘ ah, 298– 304; Israel Lip- schütz, Bat-te Kilayim, appended to his commentary on the Mishnah, section Zera‘ im; Ha- Maggid ( 1864), viii., Nos. 20, 35; M. M. Saler, Yalkut Yizhak, ii. 48a, Warsaw, 1899. W. B. J. D. E. SHABABO ( ïééæ), JESHUA: Egyptian scribe and rabbi; lived in the last quarter of the seven-teenth century. His teachers were Rabbis Abraham ha- Levi of Cairo and Joseph Nazir, who afterward became his father- in- law ( see JOSEPH NAZIR, BEN HAYYIM MOSES HA- LEVI). The relation between teach-er and pupil may be inferred from the fact that Abraham ha- Levi included some dissertations of his pupil in his work “ Ginnat Weradim.” The two men differed in opinion, and the pupil answered his teacher in “ Perah Shushan” ( Constantinople. 1732). Besides, he wrote “ Sha‘ are Orah,” “ Sha‘ are Torah,” and a large work in two parts entitled “ Sha‘ are Yeshu‘ ah,” containing responsa. Shababo was for some time a sofer, but resigned this office from religious motives when he was appointed dayyan of Cairo. E. C. L. GRÜ. SHABBAT (“ Sabbath”): Treatise in the Mish-nah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds; devoted chiefly to rules and regulations for the Sabbath. The Scrip-tural passages that treat of the Sabbath and of the laws for its observance, thus forming the exegeti-cal basis of this treatise, are: Ex. xvi. 22 et seq.; xx. 10; xxiii. 12; xxxiv. 21; xxxv. 2, 3; Num. xv. 32 et seq.; Deut. v. 14; Jer. xvii. 21 et seq.; Amos viii. 5; Neh. x. 31, xiii. 15 et seq. Shabbat is the first trea-tise in the mishnaic order Seder Mo‘ ed, and is di-vided into twenty- four chapters, containing 138 paragraphs in all. Ch. i.: Ways in which things may not be brought from a private domain (“ reshut ha- yahid ”) to the public domain (“ reshut ha- rabbim”) and vice versa on the Sabbath ( § 1); things which may not be done on Fri-day afternoon or by lamplight on Friday evening ( § § 2– 3); rules adopted at the council in the upper chamber of Hananiah b. Hezekiah b. Garon ( § 4); additional particulars concerning things which may not be done on Friday ( § § 5– 11). Sforno Shabbat Ex-ceptional Cases. Contents. Aac— Apo | Apo— Ben | Ben— Cha | Cha— Dre | Dre— Goa | God— Ist | Ita— Leo | Leo— Mor | Mor— Phi | Phi— Sam | Sam— Tal | Tal— Zwe < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | I n d e x < < P a g e > > < < V ie w >>
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