The International Critical Commentary (ICC):...

A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

2 INTRODUCTION putting all the historical books together. When the transposition was made on this basis, Ch. was put before Ezr.– Ne. from chron. consid-erations. When the disjuncture was made, there appears  to have been an acci-dent, for the severed parts overlap, Ezr. 11– 3a  being identical with 2 Ch. 3622  f.. The latter ends in the middle of a sentence “ and let him goup,” and  in the middle of Cy.’ s decree. The simplest explanation of the strange fact is that a copyist who was working on the book of Ch. had as his exemplar one of the older editions containing the whole orig-inal Ch.– Ezr.– Ne. He got beyond the point of division before he noted his mistake, and this slip has been perpetuated down to the present day. Howorth explains differently ( PSBA. 1901,2). It is indisputable that Ch. and Ezr.– Ne. come from the same hand. There is no book in the OT. which has more marked peculiarities than Ch. These cover both literary features, favourite words and expres-sions, peculiar style, etc. ( for a list of which, see Curt. 7), and also historical features, for the Chr. had his own way of looking at the history, and his theory colours his work so markedly that it is often quite valueless to the student of history. There is scarcely one of these peculiarities that is not found also in Ezr.– Ne. Evidence of the original unity is furnished from Esd., which contains two whole c. of Ch.( 2 Ch. 35, 36)  and then goes on directly to Ezra, without the duplica-tion found in Heb. Further evidence is given by Curt. Intr. § 2. § 2. THE DATE. It is difficult to deal satisfactorily with this problem, for Ezr.– Ne. is a composite work and contains sources from different periods. If the decree of Cyrus in Ezr. 1  is original, this is the earliest portion and belongs to 538 B. C. Ezr. 47– 24a  is made up chiefly of two letters which belong to the reign of Artaxerxes, and before his 20th year, therefore is dated somewhere in the period 464– 444 B. C. But the letters are imbedded in a nar-rative, and it is impossible to say when the compilation of the letters was made, except that it was before the Chronicler’s time. The Memoirs of Nehemiah were apparently written soon after his second administration, certainly not later than the end of the reign of Artaxerxes, 424 B. C. AS for the date of the whole work, Ch.– Ezr.– Ne., it is unnecessary to duplicate the excellent work of Curtis ( v. Intr. § 3). Certainly our books go down to the Greek age, and it is quite impossible to place the work earlier   C h a p t e r   Home | T O C | I n d e x

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah


About Book The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah

Front MatterTitle PageCopyright PageDedication PagePREFACE.CONTENTSABBREVIATIONSINTRODUCTION§ 1. THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE BOOKS§ 2. THE DATE§ 3. THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOKS§ 4. THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER§ 5. THE TWO EDITIONS OF EZRA–NEHEMIAH§ 6. 1 ESDRAS§ 7. THE SEMITIC TEXT§ 8. THE SOURCES§ 9. THE SAMARITAN OPPOSITION§ 10. THE DATE OF EZRA'S MISSION§ 11. THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PERIOD§ 12. CHAPTER AND VERSE DIVISIONS§ 13. LITERATURECOMMENTARY ONEZRA 1 THE END OF THE BABYLONIAN EXILEEZRA 2 1–69 THE CENSUS OF RETURNED EXILESEZRA 2 70–4 3 THE HEBREW STORY OF THE REBUILDING OF THE TEMPLEEZRA 4 24b–6 18 THE ARAMAIC ACCOUNT OF THE REBUILDING OF THE TEMPLEEZRA 6 19–22 THE OBSERVANCE OF THE PASSOVEREZRA 4 4–6 THE COMPLAINT TO XERXESEZRA 4 7–24a THE ARTAXERXES LETTERS.NE. 1, 2 NEHEMIAH BECOMES GOVERNOR OF JUDAHNE. 3 1–32 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WORK ON THE WALLNE. 3 33–4 17 THE EFFORTS OF THE ENEMY TO STOP THE WORK ON THE WALLSNE. 5 THE ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES WHICH CONFRONTED NEHEMIAHNE. 6 FURTHER EFFORTS OF SANBALLAT AND THE OTHERS TO THWART NEHEMIAHNE. 7 1–5 THE DOORS ARE PUT IN PLACE... NEHEMIAH CALLS A GENERAL ASSEMBLYNE. 11 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION OF JUDAHNE. 12 1–26 A LIST OF PRIESTS AND LEVITESNE. 12 27–43 THE DEDICATION OF THE WALLSNE. 12 44–47 PROVISION TO SECURE THE COLLECTION OF THE PRIESTLY REVENUESNE. 13 NEHEMIAH'S SECOND ADMINISTRATIONEZRA 7–10 THE HISTORY OF EZRANE. 8–10 THE READING OF THE LAWINDEX
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