The International Critical Commentary (ICC):...

A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

INTRODUCTION. § I. THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE BOOKS. The books of Ezr. and Ne. were originally one, and ought really to be so combined now. The evidence of this is over-whelming. Two points suffice for a demonstration: ( 1) The story of Ezr. is partly in one book, Ezr. 7– 10,  and partly in the other, Ne. 770– 812.*  In 1 Esd. these two parts are united in a single book. ( 2) At the end of each book of the OT. there are certain Massoretic notes, giving the number of verses, the middle point in the volume or roll, etc. There are no such notes at the end of Ezr., and those at the end of Ne. cover both books, showing that the two constituted a single work when those notes were made.† It is also generally agreed that Ezr.– Ne. originally was a part of the book of Ch., so that the whole work was a com-prehensive history of the Jews from Adam down to the end of the Persian period. It is true that in the Heb. Bible our books precede Ch., though the right order is found in G. The order in the Heb. canon is naturally illogical, and is prob. due to the fact that Ezr.– Ne. was accepted as canonical before Ch. The fact is that Ch. was under a great deal of suspicion. It was a book parall. the earlier histories long es-tablished as authorities, and differing from them so much that the presence of the new work created difficulties. Ezr.– Ne., on the other hand, contained the only account of the important Pers. period. A part of the large work of Ch. was, therefore, severed from the rest, and naturally just that part dealing with the otherwise unknown period, and of which there was no dup., and this part was accepted. Later the rest of the work found its place at the very end of the canon. The order in G really does not contravene this conclusion, for the Gk. translators made a new arrangement of the canon on a literary basis, * The grounds for this limitation are given below in the treatment of the history under the reign of Art. II. † See further my art. “ Ezr.– Ne.,” in DB. i, 218b. 1   C h a p t e r   Home | T O C | I n d e x

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah


About Book The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah

Front MatterTitle PageCopyright PageDedication PagePREFACE.CONTENTSABBREVIATIONSINTRODUCTION§ 1. THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE BOOKS§ 2. THE DATE§ 3. THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOKS§ 4. THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER§ 5. THE TWO EDITIONS OF EZRA–NEHEMIAH§ 6. 1 ESDRAS§ 7. THE SEMITIC TEXT§ 8. THE SOURCES§ 9. THE SAMARITAN OPPOSITION§ 10. THE DATE OF EZRA'S MISSION§ 11. THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PERIOD§ 12. CHAPTER AND VERSE DIVISIONS§ 13. LITERATURECOMMENTARY ONEZRA 1 THE END OF THE BABYLONIAN EXILEEZRA 2 1–69 THE CENSUS OF RETURNED EXILESEZRA 2 70–4 3 THE HEBREW STORY OF THE REBUILDING OF THE TEMPLEEZRA 4 24b–6 18 THE ARAMAIC ACCOUNT OF THE REBUILDING OF THE TEMPLEEZRA 6 19–22 THE OBSERVANCE OF THE PASSOVEREZRA 4 4–6 THE COMPLAINT TO XERXESEZRA 4 7–24a THE ARTAXERXES LETTERS.NE. 1, 2 NEHEMIAH BECOMES GOVERNOR OF JUDAHNE. 3 1–32 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WORK ON THE WALLNE. 3 33–4 17 THE EFFORTS OF THE ENEMY TO STOP THE WORK ON THE WALLSNE. 5 THE ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES WHICH CONFRONTED NEHEMIAHNE. 6 FURTHER EFFORTS OF SANBALLAT AND THE OTHERS TO THWART NEHEMIAHNE. 7 1–5 THE DOORS ARE PUT IN PLACE... NEHEMIAH CALLS A GENERAL ASSEMBLYNE. 11 THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION OF JUDAHNE. 12 1–26 A LIST OF PRIESTS AND LEVITESNE. 12 27–43 THE DEDICATION OF THE WALLSNE. 12 44–47 PROVISION TO SECURE THE COLLECTION OF THE PRIESTLY REVENUESNE. 13 NEHEMIAH'S SECOND ADMINISTRATIONEZRA 7–10 THE HISTORY OF EZRANE. 8–10 THE READING OF THE LAWINDEX
international critical commentary ezra nehemiah page https publishersrow ebookshuk books jewish hebrew ebooks most interesting modern reader bible
eBookshuk Books

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Talmud Yerushalmi: A Concordance of Amoraic Terms, Expressions and Phrases, in 3 vols.
A concordance of Amoraic terminology in Talmud Yerushalmi designed to assist to come much closer to the original text of the Yerushalmi and to its accurate interpretation.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Luah Hashanah 5780


Luah Hashannah 5778
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Palestine in the 18th Century


A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice
This is the most detailed and comprehensive guide to Jewish practice for home and synagogue, written in the spirit of Modern Orthodox and Conservative movements.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah, 12 vols.
The most important work of the 20th century giant of Talmudic scholarship.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

What is Jewish Literature?
What Is Jewish Literature? is a richly thoughtful analysis and comprehensive overview of what defines Jewish literature. It is an international collection, an enduring contribution to the literary resource for the those who strive to appreciate, evaluate, and understand the varied riches of Jewish writing.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
qerer

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions
ORIGINS: THE BEGINNINGS OF JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.