The International Critical Commentary (ICC):...

An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x differences of representation or language assume a signifi-cance which they might not have apart from that presumption. That the analysis is frequently tentative and precarious is fully acknowledged; and the danger of basing conclusions on insufficient data of this kind is one that I have sought to avoid. On the more momentous question of the historical or legendary character of the book, or the relation of the one element to the other, opinion is likely to be divided for some time to come. Several competent Assyriologists appear to cherish the conviction that we are on the eve of fresh discoveries which will vindicate the accuracy of at least the patriarchal traditions in a way that will cause the utmost astonishment to some who pay too little heed to the fìndings of archæological experts. It is naturally difficult to estimate the worth of such an anticipation; and it is advis-able to keep an open mind. Yet even here it is possible to adopt a position which will not be readily undermined. Whatever triumphs may be in store for the archæologist,— though he should prove that Noah and Abraham and Jacob and Joseph are all real historical personages,— he will hardly succeed in dispelling the atmosphere of mythical imagina-tion, of legend, of poetic idealisation, which are the life and soul of the narratives of Genesis. It will still be neces-sary, if we are to retain our faith in the inspiration of this part of Scripture, to recognise that the Divine Spirit has enshrined a part of His Revelation to men in such forms as these. It is only by a frank acceptance of this truth that the Book of Genesis can be made a means of religious edification to the educated mind of our age. As regards the form of the commentary, I have en-deavoured to include in the large print enough to enable the reader to pick up rapidly the general sense of a passage; although the exigencies of space have compelled me to employ small type to a much larger extent than was ideally desirable. In the arrangement of footnotes I have reverted to the plan adopted in the earliest volume of the series ( Driver’s Deuteronomy), by putting all the textual, grammatical, and philological material bearing on a parti- PREFACE ix

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS


About Book The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS

Front MatterDedication PageTitle PageCopyright PagePREFACE TO FIRST EDITIONCONTENTSList of AbbreviationsIntroduction§ 1. Name, Canonical Position, and General Scope of the BookA. The Narrative Material of Genesis.§ 2. History or Legend?.§ 3. Myth and Legend—Foreign Myths—Types of Mythical Motive§ 4. Style and Form of the Legends—Prose or Poetry?§ 5. Preservation and Collection of the Legends§ 6. Historical Aspects of the Tradition1. The historical background of the patriarchal traditions.2. Ethnographic theories.3. The patriarchs as historical figures.B. Structure and Composition of the Book.§ 7. The Critical Analysis§ 8. Composite Structure of J and E—Individuals or Schools?§ 9. Characteristics of J and E—their Relation to Prophecy§ 10. Date and Place of Origin—Redaction of JE§ 11. The Priestly Code and the Final Redaction1. Historical outlook.2. Religious and theological conceptions.3. Literary style and phraseology.§ 12. Plan and Divisions of the BookCommentaryCHS. I–XI - THE PRIMÆVAL HISTORY.I. 1–II. 3.—Creation of the World in Six Days: Institution of the Sabbath.I.1.I.2. Description of Chaos.I.3–5. First work: Creation of light.I.6–8. Second work: The firmament.I.9, I.10. Third work: Dry land and sea.I.11–13. Fourth work: Creation of plants.I.14–19. Fifth work: The heavenly luminaries.I.20–23. Sixth work: Aquatic and aërial animals.I.24, 25. Seventh work: Terrestrial animals.I.26–28. Eighth work: Creation of man.I.29–31.II. 1–3. The rest of God.II.4a.II. 4b–III. 24.—The Creation and Fall of Man (J).II.4b–7.—The creation of man.II.8–17. The garden of Eden.II.18–25. Creation of animals and woman.III. 1–7. The temptation.III.8–13. The inquest.III.14, 15. The curse on the serpentIII.16. The doom of the woman:III.17–19. The man's sentence.III.20–24. The expulsion from Eden.III.22–24. The actual expulsion.Ch. IV.—Beginnings of History and Civilisation.IV. 1–16.—Cain and Abel.1–5. Birth of Cain and Abel: their occupation, and sacrifice.6–12. Warning, murder, and sentence.13–16. Mitigation of Cain's punishment.IV. 17–24.—The line of Cain.17. Enoch and the building of the first city.19. The two wives of Lamech.20–22. The sons of Lamech and their occupations.23, 24. The song of Lamech.IV. 25, 26.—Fragmentary Sethite Genealogy.Ch. V.—The Ante-Diluvian Patriarchs (P).1, 2.—Introduction:3–5. Adam.6–8. Šeth21–24. The account of Enoch25–27. Methuselah.32. The abnormal age of NoahVI. 1–4.—The Origin of the Nôphîlîm.3. A divine sentence on the human race,4. The Nephîlîm were (or arose) in the earth in those days]VI. 5–IX. 29.—Noah and the Flood.The Flood according to J.VI. 5–8. The occasion of the Flood:VII. 1–5. Announcement of the Flood.VII.7–10, 12, 16b, 17b, 22, 23.—Entrance into the ark and description of the Flood.VIII. (1b?), 2b, 3a, (4?), 6–12, 13b. Subsidence of the waters.VIII.20–22. Noah's sacrifice.The Flood according to P.VI. 9–12. Noah's piety; The corruption of the earth.VI.13–16. Directions for building the ark.VI.17–22. The purpose of the ark.VII. 6, 11, 13–17a. Commencement of the Flood.VII.18–21, 24. Magnitude and effect of the Flood.VIII. 1, 2a, 3b–5, 13a, 14. Abatement of the Flood.VIII.15–19. Exit from the ark: blessing on the animals.IX. 1–7. The new world-order.IX.8–17. The Covenant and its Sign.IX.28, 29. The death of Noah.IX. 18–27.—Noah as Vine-grower: His Curse and Blessing (J).CH. X.—The Table of Peoples (P and J).The Table of P.1a. Superscription.2–5. The Japhetic or Northern Peoples:6, 7, 20. The Hamitic or Southern Group:22, 23, 31. The Shemitic or Eastern Group.The Table of J.IX. 18a, X. 1b. Introduction.8–12. Nimrod and his empire.13, 14.—The sons of Mizraim.15–19. The Canaanites.21, 24, 25–30. The Shemites.XI. 1–9.—The Tower of Babel (J).1–4. The Building of the City and the Tower.5–9. Yahwe's Interposition.XI. 10–26.—The Genealogy of Shem (P).XI. 27–32.—The Genealogy of Terah (P and J).CHS. XII–XXV.18 - THE PATRIARCHAL HISTORY. ABRAHAM.Chs. XII, XIII.—The migrations of Abram (J and P).XII. 1–8. The journey to Canaan and the promise of the Land.XII. 9–XIII. 1.—Abram in Egypt.XIII.2–18. Separation of Abram and Lot.Ch. XIV.—Abram's Victory over Four Kings.1–4. The revolt of the five kings.5–7. The preliminary campaign.8–12. The final battle, and capture of Lot.13–16. Abram's pursuit and victory.17, 18–20. Abram and Melkizedek.17, 21–24. Abram and the king of Sodom.Ch. XV.—God's Covenant with Abram (JE).1–6. The promise of an heir (J), and a numerous posterity (E).7–21. The covenant.Ch. XVI.—The Flight of Hagar and Birth of Ishmael (J and P).1–6. The flight of Hagar.7–14. The theophany at the well.Ch. XVII.—The Covenant of Circumcision (P).1–8. The Covenant-promises.9–14. The sign of the Covenant.15–22. The heir of the Covenant.23–27. Circumcision of Abraham's household.Ch. XVIII. The Theophany at Hebron: Abraham's Intercession for Sodom (J). .1–8. The entertainment of the three wayfarers.9–15. The promise of a son to Sarah.16–22a. The judgement of Sodom revealed.22b–33. Abraham's intercession.XIX. 1–29.—The Destruction of Sodom and Deliverance of Lot (J and P).1–3. Lot's hospitality.4–11. The assault of the Sodomites.12–16. The deliverance of Lot.17–22. The sparing of Zoar.23–28. The catastrophe.XIX. 30–38.—Lot and his Daughters (J).Ch. XX.— Abraham and Sarah at the Court of Gerar Abraham and Sarah at the Court of Gerar (E).1, 2. Introductory notice.3–7. Abimelech's dream.8–13. Abimelech and Abraham.14–18. Abimelech makes reparation to Abraham.XXI. 1–21.—Birth of Isaac and Expulsion of Ishmael1–7. The birth of Isaac.8–10. Sarah demands the ejection of Ishmael.11–13. Abraham's misgivings removed.14–16. Mother and child in the desert.17–19. The Divine succour20, 21. Ishmael's career.XXI. 22–34.—Abraham's Covenant with Abimelech (E and J).Ch. XXII. 1–19.—The Sacrifice of Isaac (E and R.JE ).1–8. Abraham's willing preparation for the sacrifice. —9–14. The sacrifice averted.15–19. Renewal of the promises: Conclusion.XXII. 20–24.—The Sons of Nahôr (J, R).Ch. XXIII. Purchase of the Cave of Machpelah (P).1, 2. The death of Sarah.3–7. The request for a burying-place.8–12. The appeal to >Ephrôn.13–16. The purchase of the field.17–20. Summary and conclusion.Ch. XXIV.—Procuring a Wife for Isaac (J, [E?]).1–9. The servant's commission10–14. The servant at the well.15–27. The servant and Rebekah.28–32. Laban's hospitality33–49. The servant's narrative.50–61. Departure of Rebekah, with the consent and blessing of her relatives.62–67. The home-bringing of Rebekah.XXV. 1–6.—The Sons of Keturah (J? R?).XXV. 7–11.—The Death and Burial of Abraham (P).XXV. 12–18.—The Genealogy and Death of Ishmael (P).CHS. XXV. 19–XXXVI. - THE HISTORY OF JACOBXXV. 19–34.—The Birth of Esau and Jacob, and the Transference of the Birthright (P, JE).19, 20. Isaac's marriage.21–23. The pre-natal oracle.24–26. Birth and naming of the twins.27, 28. Their manner of life.29–34. Esau parts with the birthright.Ch. XXVI.—Isaac and the Philistines (J, R, P).1–6. Isaac migrates to Gerar.7–11. Rebekah's honour compromised.12–16.—Isaac's successful husbandry.17–22. Isaac's wells.23–25. The theophany at Beersheba.26–33. The treaty with Abimelech.34, 35. Esau's Hittite wivesXXVII. 1–45.—How Jacob secured his Father's Blessing (JE).1–5. Isaac's purpose to bless Esau:6–17. Rebekah's stratagem.18–29. Jacob obtains the blessing.30–40. Esau sues in vain for a blessing.41–45. Esau's purpose of revenge.XXVII. 46–XXVIII. 9.—Isaac's Charge to Jacob (P).XXVIII. 10–22.— Jacob at Bethel Jacob at Bethel (JE).10–12 (E). Jacob's dream.13–16 (J). The promise.17–19. Consecration and naming of the place.20–22 (E). Jacob's vow.XXIX. 1–30.— Jacob's Marriage with Laban's Daughters Jacob's Marriage with Laban's Daughters (JE, P).1–14. Jacob's meeting with Rachel.15–30. Jacob's double marriage.XXIX. 31–XXX. 24.—The Birth of Jacob's Children (JE).31–35. The sons of Leah.XXX. 1–8. Rachel's adopted sons.9–13. Leah's adopted sons.14–24. The later children.XXX. 25–43.— Jacob enriched at Laban's Expense Jacob enriched at Laban's Expense (JE).25–31. Jacob proposes to provide for his own house.32–36. The new contract.37–43. Jacob's stratagem.XXXI. 1–XXXII. 1.—Jacob's Flight from Laban: their friendly Parting (J, E).1–16. Preparations for flight.17–25. The flight and pursuit.26–43. The altercation.44–54. The treaty of Gilead.XXXII. 2–33.—Jacob's Measures for propitiating Esau: His Wrestling with the Deity at Peniel (J, E).2, 3. The legend of Mahhanaim.4–14a. Jacob's precautionary measures (J).14b-22. The present for Esau23–33. The wrestling at Peniel (JE).Ch. XXXIII.—The Meeting of the Brothers: Jacob's March to Shechem (JE, P)1–7. The meeting.8–11. The present.12–17. The parting.18–20. Jacob at Shechem.Ch. XXXIV.—The Outrage on Dinah.1–12. Dinah is seduced by Shechem, and afterwards sought in marriage.13–17. The answer.18–24. The condition accepted.25–31. The vengeance of the Hebrews.Ch. XXXV.— Jacob in Canaan Jacob in Canaan (E, J, P).1–8 + 14. Bethel re-visited: the death of Deborah.9, 10. Jacob's name changed (P).6a, 11–13, 15. The blessing transmitted to Jacob:16–20. Rachel dies in child-birth (E).21, 22a. Reuben's incest (J).22b–26. A list of Jacob's sons (P).27–29. The death of Isaac (P).Ch. XXXVI. Edomite Genealogies, etc. (partly P).1–5. Esau's wives and sons.6–8. Esau's migration to Se>ir.9–14. The genealogy of Esau.15–19. The clan-chiefs of Edom.20–30. Horite genealogies.31–39. The kings of Edom.40–43. The chiefs of Esau.CHS. XXXVII–L. JOSEPH AND HIS BRETHREN .Ch. XXXVII.—How Joseph was lost to his Father through his Brethren's Hatred and Treachery (P, JE).1–11. The alienation between Joseph and his brethren.12–17. Jacob sends Joseph to inquire after his brethren.18–30. The plot to murder Joseph frustrated by Reuben (E), or Judah (J).31–36. The deceiving of Jacob.Ch. XXXVIII.—Judah and Tamar (J).1–5. Judah founds a separate family at Adullam.6–11. Tamar's wrong.12–19. Tamar's daring stratagem.20–23. Judah fails to recover his pledge.24–26. The vindication of Tamar.27–30. Birth of Perez and Zerah.Ch. XXXIX.—Joseph is cast into Prison (J).1–6. Joseph becomes the controller of an Egyptian estate.7–20. Joseph tempted by his master's wife.21–23. Joseph in prison.Ch. XL.— Joseph proves his Gift of interpreting Dreams Joseph proves his Gift of interpreting Dreams (E).1–8. Pharaoh's officers in disgrace: their dreams.9–19. The dreams interpreted.20–23. The dreams fulfilled.Ch. XLI. Joseph becomes Viceroy of Egypt (JE, P).1–8. Pharaoh's dreams.9–14. Joseph summoned to interpret the dreams.15–24. Pharaoh's recital of his dreams.25–32. The interpretation.33–36. Joseph's advice to Pharaoh.37–46. Joseph's elevation.47–57.—Joseph's measures for relief of the famine.Ch. XLII.—Joseph's Brethren come to Egypt to buy Food (E, J)1–4. The journey to Egypt.5–17. The arrival in Egypt, and first interview with Joseph.18–26. The second interview.26–38. The return to Canaan.Chs. XLIII. XLIV.—The second Visit to Egypt (J).1–14. The journey resolved on.15–25. In Joseph's house.26–34. At Joseph's table.XLIV. 1–17. The cup in Benjamin's sack.18–34. Judah's plea for Benjamin.Ch. XLV.—Joseph reveals himself to his Brethren (E, J).1–8. The disclosure.9–15. Joseph's message to his father.16–20. Pharaoh's invitation.21–28. The brethren return to Canaan.XLVI. 1–XLVII. 12.—The Settlement of Jacob and his Family in Egypt (J, E, P). expresses only1–7. Jacob bids farewell to Canaan.8–27. A list of Jacob's immediate descendants.28–30. The meeting of Jacob and Joseph.XLVI. 31–XLVII. 12.— Joseph obtains Pharaoh's Joseph obtains Pharaoh's permission for his brethren to settle in Goshen.XLVII. 13–27.—Joseph's Agrarian Policy (J?).XLVII. 28–XLVIII. 22.—Jacob's last Interview with Joseph (J, E, P).28–31. Joseph promises to bury Jacob in Canaan.XLVIII. Adoption and blessing of Joseph's two sons.1, 2. The introduction3–6. P's brief account of the adoption of Ephraim and Manasseh.7. The presence of Joseph8, 9. E's narrative is resumed.10a, 13, 14 (J).15, 16. The Blessing (E).17–19. Continuing 14 (J).20. The clause21, 22. Closing words to Joseph (E).XLIX. 1–28a.—The Blessing of Jacob.1, 2. Introduction.3, 4. Reuben.5–7. Simeon and Levi.8–12. Judah.13–15. Zebulun and Issachar.16–21. Dan, Gad, Asher, and Naphtali.22–26. Joseph.27. Benjamin.XLIX. 28b–L. 26.—The Death and Burial of Jacob; and the Death of Joseph (P, J, E).28b–33. Jacob's charge to his sons.L. 1–14. The burial of Jacob.15–21. Joseph removes his brethren's fears.22–26. Joseph's old age and death.Extended NotesThe Divine Image in ManThe Hebrew and Babylonian SabbathBabylonian and other CosmogoniesThe Site of EdenThe ‘Protevangelium'.The CherubimOrigin and Significance of the Paradise LegendOrigin of the Cain LegendThe Cainite GenealogyThe Chronology of Ch. 5, etc.The Deluge Tradition.Noah's Curse and Blessing.The Babel LegendChronology of 11.10 ff.Historic Value of Ch. 14CircumcisionThe Covenant-Idea in PDestruction of the Cities of the PlainThe Sacrifice of IsaacThe Treaty of Gilead and its Historical SettingThe Legend of PenielThe Sack of ShechemThe Edomite GenealogiesThe Degradation of ReubenThe Fate of Simeon and LeviThe “Shiloh” Prophecy of 49.10The Zodiacal Theory of the Twelve TribesIndexI. EnglishII. Hebrew
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A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.