The International Critical Commentary (ICC):...

Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x v PREFACE HE Book of Esther presents no complicated problems of documentary analysis, such as are found in most of the other historical books of the Old Testament. With the possible exception of the concluding verses in 920– 103, its unity is recognized by all schools of criticism. It also presents no difficult problems of dating, such as are found in the prophetical books. There is general agreement that it belongs to the Greek period, and probably to the latter part of that period. Questions of com-position and age, accordingly, can be dismissed in this case far more rapidly than in other commentaries of the series. On the other hand, the text of the book raises a number of problems that have no parallels in the criticism of the rest of the Old Testament. Beginning with the Greek translation, and continuing through the Old Latin, Vulgate, Josephus, and Peshitto down to the Talmud and Targums, the versions of Esther disclose a number of re-markable additions to the Massoretic text that have no analogies in the versions of other books. These are found in full in none of the commentaries and are not easily accessible to the student, yet they are important both for the history of the text and for the history of exegesis. This being the case, it is proper that a critical commentary should present these variations completely, and should discuss their textual and exegetical value. In preparing my apparatus, I soon discovered that ordinary methods of recording readings were inadequate on account of the extraordinary number of the variants. After a number of experiments I found that the only practical way was to have a separate large card for every word in the Massoretic text, and on this to record the alternate readings of the versions and recensions. The numerous additions could then be inserted on other cards whenever they interrupted the T

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER


About Book The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER

Front MatterTitle PagePREFACECONTENTSABBREVIATIONSINTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF ESTHERI. Place of Esther in the Old Testament§ 1. PLACE IN THE HEBREW BIBLE § 2. PLACE IN THE GREEK VERSIONii. The text of esthera. descendants of the tiberian massoretic text§ 3. MSS. WITH TIBERIAN VOCALIZATION § 4. THE PRINTED EDITIONS§ 5. THE MASSORA § 6. CITATIONS IN JEWISH COMMENTARIESb. other descendants of the text of the sopherim§ 7. Mss. WITH BABYLONIAN VOCALIZATION § 8. THE SYRIAC PESHITTO § 9. THE FIRST TARGUM §10. THE SECOND TARGUM §11. THE LATIN VERSION OF JEROME§12. CITATIONS IN THE TALMUDc. other descendants of the original text§13. THE GREEK VERSION §14. THE UNREVISED GREEK TEXT§15. THE RECENSION OF ORIGEN §16. THE RECENSION OF HESYCHIUS§17. THE RECENSION OF LUCIAN §18. JOSEPHUS§19. THE OLD LATIN VERSION §20. Origin of the Additions in Greekiii. Higher criticism§ 21. OUTLINE OF THE BOOK § 22. IDENTITY OF AHASUERUS § 23. PURPOSE OF THE BOOK § 24. INDEPENDENCE OF 9.20–10.3§ 25. AGE OF THE BOOK§ 26. AUTHORSHIP§ 27. HISTORICAL CHARACTER§ 28. ORIGIN OF THE FEAST OF PURIMiv. Canonicity§ 29. OMISSION OF THE NAME OF GOD§ 30. MORAL TEACHING OF THE BOOK§ 31. ESTIMATE OF THE CHURCH v. Interpretation§ 32. EARLIEST JEWISH EXEGESIS§ 33. EARLIEST CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS§ 34. THE TARGUMS AND MIDRASHES § 35. OTHER MEDIÆVAL JEWISH COMMENTARIES§ 36. MEDIÆVAL CHRISTIAN INTERPRETATION§ 37. THE REFORMATION PERIOD§ 38. THE POST-REFORMATION PERIOD§ 39. THE MODERN CRITICAL PERIODA COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF ESTHERADDITION A. MORDECAI'S DREAM.THE REJECTION OF QUEEN VASHTI (1.1–22).XERXES MAKES A FEAST FOR HIS OFFICIALS (1.1–4).XERXES ALSO MAKES ANOTHER BANQUET FOR THE MEN OF THE FORTRESS OF SUSA, AND VASHTI FOR THE WOMEN (1.5–9).XERXES COMMANDS VASHTI TO SHOW HERSELF TO THE GUESTS, BUT SHE REFUSES TO COME (1.10–12).XERXES TAKES COUNSEL WITH HIS MINISTERS WHAT OUGHT TO BE DONE TO VASHTI (1.13–15).THE ADVICE OF THE MINISTERS (1.16–20)XERXES ACTS ACCORDING TO THIS ADVICE (1.21–22).THE CHOICE OF ESTHER TO BE QUEEN (2.1–23).XERXES RESOLVES TO SEEK A SUCCESSOR FOR VASHTI (2.1 4).MORDECAI AND ESTHER ARE INTRODUCED TO THE READER (2.5–7).ESTHER IS TAKEN TO THE PALACE (2.8–11).THE PREPARATION OF THE GIRLS TO GO TO THE KING (2.12–14).ESTHER IS BROUGHT TO THE KING AND IS CHOSEN QUEEN (21.5–18).MORDECAI DISCOVERS A PLOT AGAINST THE KING (2.19–23).HAMAN'S ELEVATION AND HIS PLOT (3.1–4.17).HAMAN IS EXALTED AND ALL MEN ARE REQUIRED TO BOW DOWN TO HIM (3.1–2a).MORDECAI REFUSES TO BOW DOWN TO HAMAN (3.2b-5).HAMAN CASTS LOTS TO DESTROY THE JEWS (3.6–7).HAMAN OBTAINS AN EDICT TO DESTROY THE JEWS (3.8–11).AN EDICT TO DESTROY THE JEWS IS SENT OUT (3.12–15).MORDECAI AND ALL THE JEWS ARE FILLED WITH TERROR (4.1-3).ESTHER INQUIRES WHAT IS THE MATTER, AND IS CHARGED BY MORDECAI TO GO TO THE KING, AND TO PLEAD FOR HER PEOPLE (4.4–9).ESTHER FEARS TO GO TO THE KING, BUT IS URGED BY MORDECAI TO DO SO (4.10–14).ESTHER RESOLVES TO GO TO THE KING (4.15-17).ADDITION B. XERXES' LETTER.ADDITION C. THE PRAYERS OF MORDECAI AND ESTHER.THE DELIVERANCE OF THE JEWS (5.1–9.19)ADDITION D. ESTHER GOES TO THE KING AND IS GRACIOUSLY RECEIVED (5.1–2).THE KING OFFERS TO GRANT ANY REQUEST, BUT ESTHER ASKS ONLY THAT HE AND HAMAN WILL COME THAT DAY TO A BANQUET (5.3–5).AT THE BANQUET THE KING AGAIN OFFERS TO GRANT ANY REQUEST, BUT ESTHER ASKS ONLY THAT HE AND HAMAN WILL COME TO ANOTHER BANQUET ON THE FOLLOWING DAY (5.6–8).HAMAN PLANS TO HANG MORDECAI (5.9–14).THE KING IS REMINDED THAT NOTHING HAS BEEN DONE TO REWARD MORDECAI (6.1–3).THE KING COMMANDS HAMAN TO CONFER ROYAL HONOURS UPON MORDECAI (6.4–10).HAMAN EXECUTES THE KING'S COMMAND AND GOES HOME IN DESPAIR (6.11–13).ESTHER DENOUNCES HAMAN TO THE KING (6.14—7.6).THE KING SENTENCES HAMAN TO DEATH (7.7–10).MORDECAI IS INSTALLED IN THE PLACE OF HAMAN (8.1–2).ESTHER OBTAINS PERMISSION TO COUNTERACT HAMAN'S EDICT AGAINST THE JEWS (8.3-8).MORDECAI SENDS OUT DISPATCHES TO COUNTERACT THE EDICT OF HAMAN (8.9–14a).ADDITION E. MORDECAI'S LETTER.THE JEWS REJOICE OVER THEIR ESCAPE (8.14b-17).ON THE APPOINTED DAY THE JEWS DESTROY THEIR ENEMIES (9.1–10).THE KING GRANTS ESTHER ANOTHER DAY OF SLAUGHTER IN SUSA (9.11–15).THE ORIGIN OF THE TWO DATES ON WHICH THE FEAST OF PURIM IS KEPT (9.16–19).INSTITUTION OF THE FEAST OF PURIM (9.20–32).THE JEWS AGREE TO OBEY THE INJUNCTION OF MORDECAI (9.23–28).ESTHER AND MORDECAI WRITE A SECOND LETTER CONCERNING PURIM (9.29-32).APPENDIX TO THE BOOK THE SUBSEQUENT HISTORY OF MORDECAI (10.1–3).ADDITION F. THE INTERPRETATION OF MORDECAI'S DREAM AND CLOSING SUBSCRIPTION.INDEXESI. HEBREWII. NAMES OF AUTHORS AND BOOKSIII. SUBJECTSIV. BIBLICAL PASSAGES
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