The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)...

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минавшийся Юстинград Киевской губернии ( крестьянские логромы и логромы подразделений белых) и др., ликвидация которых сопровождалась своеобразно ритуальными и одновременно суrубо практическими действиями: после полно­го сожжения местечек их территории были распаханы 1 • Подобную информа­цию - о том, как места обитания еврейского населения наравне с жителями становились жертвами логромов - можно цитировать целыми страницами. Что касается Белоруссии, то характер действий различных сил в отноше­нии еврейской собственности и мест проживания населения в течение трех периодов логромов в регионе отличался определенными особенностями. Так, при оккупации Белоруссии в 1919- 1920 гг., главным образом при отстуnле­нии польских войск летом 1920 г., осушествлялся поголовный грабеж и вывоз еврейского имушества, а затем - поджоги местечек и городов и уничтожение оставшегося. И это - при небольшом числе убитых, т. к. в войсках использо­валась тактика « выборочных репрессий » ( см. убийство семьи Геклеров в г. Бобруйске2). Все это служило целям, с одной стороны- держать в страхе еврейское население оккупированных районов, при уходе - оставить опусто­шение в местах нахождения потенциального  неприятеля, а с другой - пога­сить любую возможность проявления недовольства в войсках, действовавших на чужой территории, предоставляя им право на грабежи. Кроме того, частич­но действия польских войск объясняются и отсутствием достаточного контро­ля над ними со стороны командования. При вторжении в Белоруссию из Польши отрядов Ст. Булак- Балаховича­Б. Савинкова осенью 1920 г. занятие городов сопровождалось двух- трехднев­ными « неслыханными грабежами » , уничтожением еврейской собственности, массовыми убийствами и изнасилованиями. Только на таких условиях бала­ховцы соглашались принимать участие в боевых действиях3 • К особенностям бандитизма в Белоруссии в 1921 г. следует отнести его по­громный характер, когда многочисленные банды ( участники антисоветских мятежей, остатки отрядов Балаховича, дезертиры, уголовные элементы и др.) при широком участии местного крестьянства уничтожали еврейскую собст­венность и самих евреев, грабили и сжигали их имушество4 • Местное кресть­янство все активнее присоединялось к учиняемым погромам. В результате акты вандализма, идуmие рука об руку с убийствами в Бело­руссии - и в большей степени на Украине, вырастали в уничтожение самих мест традиционного проживания еврейского населения. Как следствие - ли­квидировалась сама возможность дальнейшего проживания евреев в этих рай­онах, и они « выдавливались » с данных территорий, спасаясь в крупных уезд­ных городах, которые лучше контролировались региональными властями, или, как это происходило на Украине, бежали в места, где существовала сис­тема еврейской самообороны. Еще одной из особенностей логромов 1918- 1922 rr., придававшей им мас­совый характер, явилась многочисленность их исполнителей. Свидетельства опросов о погромах, представленные в сборнике, позволяют посмотреть на во­просы насилия « изнутри » и по- новому взглянуть на проблему определения ис­полнителей погромов, провести их свидетельское опознание. Находясь « Внут- 1 ГА РФ. Ф. Р- 1339. Оп. 2. Д. 18. Л. 51. 2 См. док. N2 213. 3 Борис Савинков на Лубянке: Документы. М., 2001. С. 442- 443; ГА РФ. Ф. Р- 1339. Оп. 2. Д. 18. Л. 51. 4 См.: Розенблат Е. С. Основные этапы и локализация поrромов в Беларуси ... VIII

The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)


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The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)
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