The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)...

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ВВЕДЕНИЕ Данная публикация документов посвящена такому аспекту Гражданской войны, как этническое насилие. Формой этнического насилия 1918- 1922 rr. явились поrромы еврейского населения западной части бывшей Российской империи - Украины, Белоруссии и европейской части России•. Поrромы стали составной частью военно- политических, экономических, социальных и других конфликтов, которые характеризовали Гражданскую войну в целом и обусловили ее отличия в отдельных регионах. Однако поrромы как форму эт­нического насилия следует рассматривать главным образом в контексте де­формации и деградации новых государственных и общественных структур, которые только начали формироваться в тот период на Украине, в Белоруссии и России, крушения моральных норм населения - процессов, Проявившихея в Первую мировую войну и Продолжившихея в невиданных масштабах в пе­риод Гражданской войны. После распада империи и образования Советской России, провозглаше­ния независимости Украины и Белоруссии2 ( где бьши предприняты попытки построения национальных государств) их территории стали ареной борьбы за власть самых различных военно- политических сил, в том числе и внешних. При этом вооруженные силы противоборствующих сторон - за исключением польских войск и частично Белой армии - имеЛи характер иррегулярных ар­мий, подавляющая часть которых состояла из вчерашних крестьян, а их под­разделения подчинялись, скорее, авторитету ближайшего командира, нежели высшего руководства. Одновременно эти регионы, в первую очередь Украи­на, были охвачены мощным крестьянским движением, которое, наряду с ло­зунгами борьбы за землю, было заражено своеобразным крестьянским анар­хизмом и выступало против новых, пытавшихся утвердиться в регионах, вла­стей: будь то Центральная Рада, режим П. Скоропадского, Директория С. Петлюры или же Советская власть и правление генерала А. Деникина, как это имело место на украинских землях. Таким образом, на Украине и в Бело­руссии насилие государственных вооруженных структур ( войска Директо­рии- Украинской народной республики ( УНР), польские войска, подразделе­ния Красной армии), а также воинских соединений, представлявших офици­ально оформленные движения ( Белая армия, подразделения Ст. Балаховича­Савинкова), пересекалось в точке еврейских погромов с крестьянским бун­тарством, усиленным Первой мировой и Гражданской войнами. В европейской части Советской России погромы были редким явлением, что в определенной степени связано с особенностями ра.~ селения еврейского населения в бывшей империи - его сравнительной малочисленностью по сравненИю с украинскими и белорусским районами, относительной отдален- 1 Составители сборника учитывают, что в Российской империи Украина и Белоруссия не являлись государственными образованиями. 2 Часть территории Белоруссии бьта оккупирована Польшей в 1919 г. По условиям Рижского мирного договора ( 1921 г.) территории Западной Украины и Западной Белорус­сии бьти включены в состав Польши. III

The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)


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