Spain, the Jews, and Franco Page...

The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Acknowledgments · x These questions plagued me then and years later, and were the stim-ulus for this work. Thus my first acknowledgment goes to those Span-iards who through their self- confidence prompted me to undertake this research. My primary aim was to gather all the material available in Israel. The Central Zionist Archives, the Yad Vashem records, and the files of other specialized archives, as well as dozens of eyewitnesses interviewed and recorded by the Oral History Division of the Institute of Contempo-rary Jewry at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, all provided extreme-ly important documentation. Then followed the search for material abroad: at the Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine in Paris; the World Jewish Congress headquarters and the archives of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research in New York; at Haverford College near Philadelphia, where the American Friends Service Committee’s papers are kept; and at the Spanish Foreign Ministry in Madrid. The willing help and generous guidance I received from the librarians, archivists, and directors of these institutions were indispensible to my work. I express my deepest grati-tude to every one of them. Special thanks are due the following people, without whose particular aid this study could never have been completed. My mentor, the late Israel Halperin, guided my initial steps in this research, and Moshe Davis, head of the Institute of Contemporary Jewry, helped me with the English pub-lication. Haim Beinart advised me and through his many contacts in Spain helped me to obtain permission to use the Spanish Foreign Ministry’s ar-chives. Yehuda Bauer took a keen interest in my research and as the head of the Holocaust Research Unit of the Institute of Contemporary Jewry and a student of the history of the Joint Distribution Committee assisted me by supplementing my own resources with a number of important doc-uments. Haim Beinart, Bela Vago, Hayyim Cohen, Nathan Lerner, and Jacob Tsur read sections of the manuscript with whose subject matter they were familiar and clarified certain passages. Juan Bautista Vilar of the Universi-ty of Murcia, Spain, helped by sending several important documents. The late Zosa Szajkowski assisted with certain materials in the YIVO archives in New York. Gerhart Riegner, general secretary of the World Jewish Congress, placed important documents at my disposal, supplementing the material provided by the late Yitzhak Weissman, representative of the World Jewish Congress in Lisbon. Abraham Polonsky of Tel Aviv, commander of the Zionist underground in Toulouse during the war, placed the Armée Juive’s archives in his possession at my disposal. I owe special thanks to my teacher Shulamit Nardi, who was of in-valuable assistance in reviewing the English translation, and to my friend   C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x For use on stand- alone, non- institutional computers only. To purchase Scholar PDF version with advanced functionality, go to www. publishersrow. com

Spain, the Jews, and Franco


About Book Spain, the Jews, and Franco

Front MatterTitle PageCopyrightDedicationCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTSINTRODUCTION1 THE EMANCIPATION AND MODERN ANTI-SEMITISMEQUAL RIGHTS IN SPAINSYMPATHY AND HOSTILITYUNDER THE REPUBLICTHE JEWISH PRESENCELIGHT AND SHADOWS2 SPAIN AT THE START OF WORLD WAR IIFROM GUERNICA TO OPERATION TORCHTHE END OF THE BEGINNINGTHE POTENTIAL FOR RESCUE3 TRANSIT AND PATRONAGEJEWS IN NATIONALIST SPAINSPAIN'S VISA POLICYCONSULAR PROTECTIONAN INTERIM BALANCE SHEET4 SPAIN AS A HAVEN FOR REFUGEJEWISH REFUGEESFUGITIVES FROM ALL NATIONSTHE STATELESSTHE EVACUATIONASYLUM IN SPAIN5 THE RESCUE OF SPANISH NATIONALSGERMAN AND SPANISH POSITIONSREPATRIATION FROM WESTERN EUROPEREPATRIATION FROM SALONIKAREPATRIATION FROM ATHENSTHE SAVING GRACE OF SPANISH NATIONALITY6 DEFENDING JEWS IN THEIR OWN COUNTRIESBULGARIAROMANIAHUNGARYTHE EXTENT OF RESCUE7 FACT AND FANTASYSPAIN'S WORDS AND DEEDSTHE JEWS, THE ALLIES, AND THE RESCUE8 IN THE POST-HOLOCAUST GENERATIONEMANCIPATIONTHE GROWTH OF THE COMMUNITYCONTEMPORARY SPAIN AND THE JEWISH PEOPLEAPPENDIXABBREVIATIONSNOTESINTRODUCTIONBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXIllustrationsAngel Pulido y Fernandez, “apostle to the Spanish Jews.”Behor Isaac Nahum, rabbi of the Sephardic community in Barcelona, 1930–39.Ignacio Bauer, head of the Madrid Jewish community before World War II.General Emilio Esteban Infantes, commander of the División Azul, accepting the Iron Cross from Adolf Hitler,Capuchin Father Pierre Marie-Benoît, rescuer of the Jews of Marseille.Bernardo Rolland, consul general in Nazi-occupied Paris,Samuel Sequerra, representative of the AJDC in Spain,Joseph Croustillon in Spain posing with children rescued by the Armée Juive.Yitzhak Weissman, representative of the World Jewish Congress in Lisbon, 1941–45.The old synagogue in Madrid dedicated at the Calle de Pizarro in 1958.The new synagogue in Madrid dedicated at the Calle de Balmes in 1968.Unveiling of the monument to Maimonides at Córdoba, June 7, 1964. (Instituto Anas Montano)Members of theArmistad Judeo-Cristiana praying in the Church of Santa Rita, Madrid, February 28, 1967.
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