Reading Guide and Index, The Universal...

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PA G EI. HIS T OR Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 . Jewish Histor y in General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Jewish Histor y by P eriods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. U nited States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. W est Indies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Central America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 . South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8. The British Isles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9. France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1 0. The Iberian P eninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 1 . Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 2. Italy and Malta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 3. Smaller Countries of Nor thern Eur ope . . .1 0 1 4. P oland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 5. Smaller Countries of Central Eur ope . . . . .1 1 1 6. The Balkan States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1 7 . Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 8. Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 9. P alestine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 20. W estern Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 2 1 . Central Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 22. The F ar East . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 23. Historians of the Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 II. LITER A TURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 24. Languages of the Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8 25. Hebr ew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8 26. Jewish Literatur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8 27 . The Contents of the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9 28. Bible Interpr etation and Interpr eters . . . . .2 1 29. Bible Influence on Civilization . . . . . . . . . .22 30. Apocr ypha and Pseudepigrapha . . . . . . . . .22 3 1 . The T almud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 32. Midrash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 33. Hebr ew Literatur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 34. Y iddish Literatur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 35. Books and Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 III. RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 36. R eligion in General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 37 . R eligion of Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 38. Judaism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 39. Jewish Theology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 40. Jewish Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 4 1 . The R eligious Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 42. Customs and Cer emonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1 43. Litur gy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 44. Ethics and Morality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 45. Jewish Mysticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 46. Angels and Demons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 47 . Sects and Divisions in Judaism . . . . . . . . . .34 IV . JEWISH LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 48. F amily and Social Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 49. Costume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36   50. Diet and Hygiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 PA G E5 1 . Jewish Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 52. Striking Jewish Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 53. Amusements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 54. Jewish Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 55. Synagogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 56. Community and Communal Or ganization . 4 0 57 . Social W elfar e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 58. Jewish Law A. Sour ces and Development .42 59. Jewish Law B. Individual Laws and Legal Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 60. Jewish Law C. Cour t Pr ocedur e. . . . . . . . . 44 6 1 . Animals and Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 V . JEW S AND NON- JEW S . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 62. Judaism and Other R eligions . . . . . . . . . . . 46 63. Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 64. Jews as Obser ved by Non- Jews . . . . . . . . . 47 65. Anti- Semitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 66. Philo- Semites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 VI. GENER AL SUBJECT S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 67 . Jewish Ar c heology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 68. Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 69. F olklor e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 70. F amilies and F amily T r ees . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1 7 1 . Messiah and Messianic Movements . . . . . 52 72. P olitical and Social Movements . . . . . . . . . 53 73. Labor and Labor Or ganizations . . . . . . . . 54 7 4. Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 75. Race, Nation or R eligion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 7 6. F acts and Figur es About Jews. . . . . . . . . . . 55 VII. JEWISH C ONTRIBUTIONS T O CIVILIZA TION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 77 . Jews in Ar t and Ar c hitectur e . . . . . . . . . . . .57 78. Jews in Astr onomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 79. Jews in Athletics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 80. Jews in A viation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 8 1 . Jews in Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 82. Jews in Chemistr y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 83. Jews in Chess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 84. Jews in Dentistr y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1 85. Jews as Educators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1 86. Jews in Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1 87 . Jews in Industr y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 88. Jews as Inventors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 89. Jews in Journalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 90. Jews in Literatur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 9 1 . Jews in Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 92. Jews in Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 93. Jews in Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 94. Jews in Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 95. Jews in Public Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 96. Jews as Soldiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 97 . Jews in the Theatr e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 98. Jews in T ravel and Exploration . . . . . . . . . .7 4 99. Jews in V arious Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75   1 00. Notewor thy Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6 iii T ABLE OF C ONTENT S Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index

Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


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Front MatterTitle PageCopyright PageTable Of ContentsINTRODUCTIONABBREVIATIONSContentsHISTORYJEWISH HISTORY IN GENERALJEWISH HISTORY BY PERIODS1. The Building of the Nation (about 1500 to 1000 B.C.E.)a. The Traditional Beginningsb. The Land of Canaanc. Settlement and Early Struggles of the Israelites Twelve Tribes 10:330 (there are separate articles on each of the tribes)d. Cult Objects and Institutions2. The Period of the Kingdom (1000 to 586 B.C.E.)a. Political Historyb. Nations and Rulers with Which the Israelites Came into Contactc. Religious Institutions and Movementsd. Important Leaders3. The Babylonian Exile (586 to 539 B.C.E.)4. The Persian Period (539 to 331 B.C.E.)a. Foreign Rulersb. New Institutions and Movementsc. Other Jewish Settlementsd. Jewish Leaders5. The Greek Period (331 to 165 B.C.E.)a. Foreign Rulersb. Other Countries of Jewish Settlementc. New Institutions and Movementsd. Jewish Leaders6. The Hasmonean Period (165 to 37 B.CE.)a. The Struggle for Independenceb. The Hasmonean Dynastyc. Rulers or Generals of Other Countriesd. Other Countries near Judeae. New Movementsf. Other Jewish Settlements7. Loss of Independence (37 B.CE. to 70 C.E.)a. Rulers of Palestineb. Roman Leaders and Emperorsc. Other Countriesd. New Movementse. Jewish Leaders8. The Mishnaic-Talmudic Period (70 to 500)a. Roman Emperorsb. Countries Other than Palestinec. New Movements and Institutionsd. Jewish Leaders9. The Babylonian Center (400 to 1000)a. Countries of Jewish Settlementb. Institutionsc. Jewish Leaders10. The Arabic Period (628 to 1200)a. Rise of Islamb. Lands Conquered by the Arabs or at War with Themc. New Movements in Judaismd. Jewish Leaders11. The Golden Age in Spain (950 to 1350)a. Countries of Jewish Settlementb. New Movementsc. Notable Jews12. The Era of Persecutions and Expulsions (1096 to 1492)a. Attacks and Mass Expulsionsb. Specific Forms of Persecutionc. New Unfavorable Position of the Jewsd. Other Countries of Jewish Settlemente. Notable Jews13. The Polish Center (1250 to 1772)a. Rise and Decline of the Polish Centerb. Other Countries of Jewish Settlementc. The New American Settlementsd. Institutions and New Movementse. Notable Jews14. The Messianic Movements (1650 to 1750)15. The Revolt Against Tradition (1740 on)a. New Movementsb. Notable Jews16. Emancipation (1776 to 1917)a. Historical Eventsb. Notable Jews17. Zionism (1880 to 1935)a. Historical Eventsb. Notable Leaders18. The American and Palestinian Centers (1880 on)a. Historical Eventsb. Notable Jews19. The Period After the First World War (1920 on)a. Chief Developmentsb. Countries of Europe and Africa Affected by Anti-Semitismc. Other Countries of Jewish SettlementUNITED STATESAMERICAN CONTINENT 1:231-34, 234-35UNITED STATESA. New England StatesB. Middle Atlantic StatesC. Southeastern StatesD. Middle West StatesE. Southwestern StatesF. Western StatesG. Far Western StatesH. TerritoriesCANADACANADA 2:651-56WEST INDIESWEST INDIES 10:507CENTRAL AMERICACENTRAL AMERICA 3:88SOUTH AMERICASOUTH AMERICA 9:665-66THE BRITISH ISLESENGLAND 4:110-30 (illus. 9:376)Southeastern EnglandSouthwestern EnglandNorthern EnglandSCOTLAND 9:446-47IRELAND 5:585-86THE IBERIAN PENINSULASPAIN 9:682-90Northeastern SpainCentral SpainSouthern SpainPORTUGAL 8:606-7GERMANYGERMANY 4:541-84Provinces West of the RhineThe RhinelandNorthern GermanyCentral GermanySouthernGermanyEastern GermanyITALY AND MALTAITALY 5:625-39Northern ItalyCentral ItalySouthern ItalySMALLER COUNTRIES OF NORTHERN EUROPEBELGIUM 2:148-50HOLLAND 5:421-41 (illus. 10:7)LUXEMBURG 7:241-43DENMARK 3:534-36NORWAY 8:242-44SWEDEN 10:112-13FINLAND 4:308-9ESTONIA 4:171-72LATVIA 6:549-50LITHUANIA 7:135-37POLANDPOLAND 8:564-78 (illus. 1:194)Western PolandCentral PolandEastern PolandGALICIA 4:493-99SMALLER COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL EUROPESWITZERLAND 10:114-16CZECHOSLOVAKIA 3:439-43Bohemia 2:439-41Moravia 7:641-42SlovakiaRuthenia 9:288AUSTRIA: 1:623-30Upper AustriaLower AustriaBurgenland 2:590-9HUNGARY 5:483-503Western HungaryThe Banat (under Yugoslavia from 1919 to 1941)Central HungaryCities under Czechoslovakian rule from 1919 to 1939Eastern HungaryTHE BALKAN STATESYUGOSLAVIA 10:617-21ROUMANIA 9:247-65Transylvania and Banat (formerly part of Hungary)Bucovina 2:573-74ALBANIA 1:156-57GREECE 5:91-93RUSSIARUSSIA 9:278-86SOVIET RUSSIA 9:670-84White Russia 10:511Ukraine 10:334-39 (illus. 1:257)Bessarabia 2:244-48Great RussiaCrimea 3:412-16Caucasus 3:68-69AFRICAALGERIA 1:180-82TUNIS AND TUNISIA 10:323-24 (illus. 3:76)LIBYA 7:44-46EGYPT 4:5-16ETHIOPIA 4:182-85BELGIAN CONGO 2:148KENYA 6:363ANGOLAMADAGASCAR 7:267PALESTINEPALESTINE 8:347-73 (illus. 9:441; 10:121)WESTERN ASIATURKEY 10:326-29CYPRUS 3:437-38SYRIA 10:134-36PETRA 8:471-72ARABIA 1:438-41ARMENIA 1:482-83CENTRAL ASIAIRAQ 5:585PERSIA 8:460-66BOKHARA 2:443-44TURKESTAN 10:325-26AFGHANISTAN 1:106INDIA 5:553-57BURMA 2:605-6SIBERIA 9:524-25THE FAR EASTCHINA 3:156-59JAPAN 6:38-40PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 8:486-87SINGAPORE 9:554NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 8:151-52AUSTRALIA 1:6l7-22TASMANIA 10:177NEW ZEALAND 8:205HISTORIANS OF THE JEWSHISTORIOGRAPHY 5:386-98a. Sourcesb. Ancient Jewish Historiansc. Medieval Historiansd. Modern HistoriansLITERATURELANGUAGES OF THE JEWSVERNACULARS 10:406-9HEBREWHEBREW LANGUAGE 5:276-81JEWISH LITERATUREA. Jewish Literature Classified by LanguageB. Jewish Literature Classified by CategoriesC. General Types of Literary ActivityD. Individual Features in Jewish LiteratureE. Special Topics in Jewish LiteratureTHE CONTENTS OF THE BIBLEBIBLE 2:280-84Pentateuch 8:434Prophets (see 8:658)Hagiographa 5:164-65Genesis 4:528-30Exodus, Book of 4:212-15Leviticus 7:4-5Numbers 8:248-49Nehemiah 8:146-48BIBLE INTERPRETATION AND INTERPRETERS1. BIBLE EXEGESIS 2:301-62. BIBLE CRITICISM 2:284-93Hexateuch 5:352-54BIBLE INFLUENCE ON CIVILIZATIONBible Translations 2 :334-46Bible Reading 2:333-34Hebraisms 5:270Bible in Art 2:306-16Bible in Drama 2:316-19Bible in Literature 2:319-26Bible in Music 2:326-27APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHAAPOCRYPHA 1:422-24PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 9:20THE TALMUDTALMUD 10:160-651. Zeraim 10:6402. Moed 7:6083. Nashim 8:1024. Nezikin 8:2165. Kodashim 6:4256. Toharoth 10:260Talmud Tractates, Minor 10:167-681. The Chain of Tradition2. Tannaim 10:170-71First GenerationThird GenerationFourth GenerationFifth GenerationSixth GenerationUncertain PeriodFirst Palestinian GenerationSecond Palestinian GenerationSecond Babylonian GenerationThird Palestinian GenerationThird Babylonian GenerationFourth Palestinian GenerationFourth Babylonian GenerationFifth Palestinian GenerationFifth Babylonian GenerationSixth Babylonian Generation4. Saboraim 9:301-2MIDRASHMIDRASH 7:538A. The Halachic Midrash CompilationsB. The Haggadic Midrash Compilations1. Midrash Rabbah 7:540-412. Other Midrash Compilations toBiblical Books3. General Midrash Compilations4. Articles or Sections of Articles Devoted to Midrashic ExpositionsHEBREW LITERATURELITERATURE, HEBREW 7:87-96YIDDISH LITERATURELITERATURE, YIDDISH 7:125-35BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTSBOOKS 2:458-70RELIGIONRELIGION IN GENERALRELIGION 9:124-261. Primitive Forms of Religion2. The Achievement of Monotheism3. Modern Speculations on ReligionRELIGION OF ISRAELRELIGION OF ISRAEL 9:126-281. The Struggle with Idolatry2. Shrines3. Cult Objects4. Modes of Learning the Will of God5. Consecrated Persons6. Mode of Worship7. Sacred Days8. Special IdeasJUDAISMJUDAISM 6:232-37Dogmas 3:585-86Creed 3:400-31. Articles of Faith2. Ethical and Social Ideals3. Personal Standards of Religious ConductJEWISH THEOLOGYTHEOLOGY 10:242-441. The Nature of God2. God and the World3. The Nature of Man4. God and Man5. God and Israel6. Revelation 9:147-487. Sin and Atonement8. The Fate of the Soul9. The Fate of the WorldJEWISH PHILOSOPHYPHILOSOPHY, JEWISH 8:500-15THE RELIGIOUS CALENDARTIME, MEASURING OF 10:251-53CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIESCEREMONIAL OBJECTS AND INSTITUTIONS 3:103-5A. The Life Span1. Birth and Infancy2. Youth3. Adult Life4. Death and Burial5. Mourning and Respect for the DeadB. The Religious Year6. The Year as a Whole7. Sabbath 9:295-99Holidays 5:410-l6Holidays, Second Day of 5:416Pilgrimage Festivals 8:531Processions 8:650-518. Passover 8:408-109. Shabuoth 9:490-9110. Rosh Hashanah 9:22711. Yom Kippur 10:604-512. Sukkoth 10:95-9713. Shemini Atzereth 9:502-314. Hanukah 5:209-1115. Purim 9:36-4216. Minor Festive Occasions17. Fasting and Fast Days 4:249-52CEREMONIAL LAW 3:94-103LITURGYPRAYER 8:617-19DIVINE SERVICE 3:575-77LITURGY 7:139-43A. Private PrayersB. Public Services1. The Basic Prayers2. The Principal Services of the Day (arranged in the order of their origin)3. The Daily Service4. Special Features of the Sabbath (and sometimes Festival) Service5. Special Features of the Festival Services6. Special Features of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Service7. Special Features for Services on Other Occasions8. Biblical Characters Especially Mentioned in the LiturgyPRAYER-BOOKS 8:619-21Literature, Devotional 7:85-86ETHICS AND MORALITYETHICS 4:174-81MORALITY 7:640-411. Ethical Ideals2. The Emotions3. Relations to Others4. Duties to the Community5. Ethical Issues in Life6. Ethical LiteratureJEWISH MYSTICISMMYSTICISM 8:73-76CABALA 2:614-20ANGELS AND DEMONSANGELS 1:304-14DEMONS 3:529-34SECTS AND DIVISIONS IN JUDAISMSECTS 9:453HERESY 5:320-21CONTROVERSIES 3:339-41Samaritans 9:335-39Sadducees 9:308-9Pharisees 8:473-76Essenes 4:167-68Zealots 10:630-31Karaites 6:314-19Hasidism 5:237-4lReform Movement 9:101-3Musar Movement 8:43-44JUDAISM IN AMERICA 6:237-46FAMILY AND SOCIAL LIFEFAMILY AND FAMILY LIFE 4:242-44JEWISH LIFECOSTUMECOSTUMES 3:375-81DIET AND HYGIENEDietary Laws 3:564Kashruth 6:327-31Slaughtering, Ritual 9:562-65Purity, Ritual 9:42-43Hygiene of the Jews 5:509-14Social Hygiene of the Jews 9:578-79JEWISH MUSICFOLK SONGS 4:350-55MUSIC, SYNAGOGAL 8:48-55STRIKING JEWISH PHRASESAMUSEMENTSJEWISH EDUCATIONSTUDY 10:90-91EDUCATION 3:629-401. Rabbinical Seminaries2. Institutions for Jewish Studies Akademie für die Wissenschaft des JudentumsSYNAGOGUESYNAGOGUE 10:119-30COMMUNITY AND COMMUNAL ORGANIZATIONJEWISH COMMUNITY AND COMMUNAL ORGANIZATIONS 6:99-1261. The Jewish Community in Bible Times2. The Jewish Community in the Talmudic Period3. The Jewish Community in the Middle Ages4. The Jewish Community in Modern Times5. Community Government6. Functionaries, Religious and Communal 4:470-777. Community Records8. Community Titles9. Community Charactersa. Of International Scopeb. In Argentinec. In Austriad. In Englande. In Germanyf. In Roumaniag. In the United States: Generalh. In the United States: By Country of Origini. Fraternal Ordersj. Agricultural AssociationsSOCIAL WELFARECHARITY 3:113-14PHILANTHROPY 8:484-85SOCIAL LEGISLATION 9:579-80SOCIAL SERVICE, JEWISH 9:580-83JEWISH LAW: Source and DevelopmentTORAH 10:267-69Precepts, The 613 8:623-29LAW, JEWISH: SOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF 6:557-61JEWISH LAW: Individual Laws and Legal PrinciplesLAW, JEWISH: CLASSIFICATION OF 6:554-571. General Legal Principles and Enactments2. Offenses Against Persons3. Offenses Against Property4. Domestic and Sexual Relations5. Inheritance Law6. Business Law7. Property Law8. Real Estate Law9. Legal Documents10. Law of Representation11. Religious LawJEWISH LAW: Court ProcedureCOURTS 3:385-89ANIMALS AND PLANTSFAUNA OF PALESTINE 4:256-64FLORA OF PALESTINE 4:331-41JEWS AND NON-JEWSJUDAISM AND OTHER RELIGIONS1. The Religions of Canaan2. Religions of the Ancient World3. Christianity 3:177-864. Islam 5:610-135. Modern Religious MovementsCHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY 3:177-861. Christian LiteratureNew Testament 8:174-75Gospels 5:68-69Revelation, Book of 9:148-492. Christian LeadersPaul 8:415-17Church Fathers 3:203-43. Christian Sects4. Christian Doctrines5. Christian Rites and Institutions6. Relations Between Christians and JewsJEWS AS OBSERVED BY NON-JEWSGreek Writers on Jews 5:93-95Roman Writers on Jews 9:185-86Christian Writers on Jews 3:175-76Literature on and by Jews 7:100-25American Literature on and by Jews § I.1:259-62ANTI-SEMITISMANTI-SEMITISM 1:34l-4091. Anti-Semitic Racial Theories2. Anti-Semitic Canards and Their Refutation3. Attempts to Convert the Jews by Force4. Attacks on Jewish Literature5. Economic and Social Measures Against the Jews6. Outbreaks of Violence7. Incidents in which Anti-Semitism was an Important Factor8. Notorious Anti-Semites (in chronological order)9. Defense Against Anti-SemitismPHILO-SEMITESPHILO-SEMITES 8:497-99INTERVENTION 5:581-82GENERAL SUBJECTSJEWISH ARCHEOLOGYARCHEOLOGY, JEWISH 1:459-66SYMBOLSSYMBOLS AND SYMBOLISM 10:118-19FOLKLOREFOLKLORE 4:348-491. The Folklore of the Bible2. Attempts to Ascertain the Future3. MAGIC 7:273-754. SUPERSTITION 10:103-45. Fabulous Animals6. LEGENDS 6:590-917. Legends of Jewish Content but Non-Jewish Origin8. Ceremonies in Which There is a Folklore BasisFAMILIES AND FAMILY TREESGENEALOGY 4:526-27MESSIAH AND MESSIANIC MOVEMENTSMESSIAH 7:499-503MESSIANIC ERA 7:503-4MESSIANIC MOVEMENTS 7:505-6POLITICAL AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTSDemocracy 3:522-28Asceticism 1:532-33Internationalism 5:579-81Masonry 7:397-99Religious Liberty 9:128-31Anti-Slavery Movement and the Jews 1:410Anarchism 1:294Labor Movement and the Jews 6:504-5Nationalism, Jewish 8:126-32Pacifism 8:341-42Communism 3:315-20LABOR AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONSLABOR 6:497-504LABOR MOVEMENT AND THE JEWS 6:504-5ZIONISMZIONISM 10:645-67RACE, NATION OR RELIGION?RACE, JEWISH 9:60-62NATIONALISM, JEWISH 8:126-32CHOSEN PEOPLE 3:164-69 MISSION OF ISRAEL 7:582-84FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT JEWSSTATISTICS 10:23-36CONVERTS 3:341-46PROSELYTES 9:1-3Mixed Marriage 7:593-98OCCUPATIONS 8:265-79CASTES 3:60JEWISH CONTRIBUTIONS TO CIVILIZATIONJEWS IN ART AND ARCHITECTUREART, JEWS IN 1:489-500ARCHITECTURE 1:466-67JEWS IN ASTRONOMYASTRONOMY 1:571-76JEWS IN ATHLETICSATHLETICS 1:581-99JEWS IN AVIATIONAVIATION, JEWS IN 1:644-47JEWS IN BIOLOGYBIOLOGY, JEWS IN 2:362-67JEWS IN CHEMISTRYALCHEMY 1:164-66CHEMISTRY 3:125-31BelgiumEnglandGermanyHollandUnited StatesJEWS IN CHESSCHESS 3:133-34JEWS IN DENTISTRYDENTISTRY, JEWS IN 3:536-37JEWS AS EDUCATORSUNIVERSITIES 10:363-76JEWS IN FINANCEFINANCE, JEWS IN 4:289-302MONEY LENDING 7:618-22Various Countries in EuropeEnglandFranceGermany and AustriaRussiaPolandRoumaniaHungaryJEWS IN INDUSTRYJEWS AS INVENTORSSCIENCE AND INVENTION 9:443-44JEWS IN JOURNALISMPERIODICALS AND PRESS 8:437-57AustriaDenmarkEnglandFranceGermanyHollandHungaryJapanUnited StatesAnglo-JewishHebrewYiddishJEWS IN LITERATURELITERATURE ON AND BY JEWS 7:100-25AMERICAN LITERATRE ON AND BY JEWS 1:262-70EnglishGermanyFrenchHungarianItalianScandinavian LanguagesDutchSpanishPolishRussianRoumanianJEWS IN MATHEMATICSMATHEMATICS, JEWS IN 7:408-11JEWS IN MEDICINEMEDICINE 7:434-36HYGIENE OF THE JEWS 5:509-14PHYSICIANS 8:523-27JEWS IN MUSICMUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THE JEWS 8:55-66MUSICIANS, JEWISH 8:66-68JEWS IN PHILOSOPHYJEWS IN PUBLIC OFFICEPUBLIC OFFICE, JEWS IN 9:22-31AustraliaAustriaBelgiumBritish EmpireCanadaCzechoslovakiaDenmarkFranceGermanyHollandHungaryItalyLatviaNew ZealandPolandRussiaTurkeyUnited States DiplomatsCabinet MembersJudiciarySenatorsGovernors of States and TerritoriesMiscellaneousJEWS AS SOLDIERSSOLDIER, JEW AS 9:594-633United StatesColonial and Revolutionary PeriodFrom the Revolution to the Civil WarCivil WarFrom the End of the Civil War to 1943In the United States NavyEnglandFranceGermanyItalyRussiaAustraliaOther CountriesJEWS IN THE THEATRETHEATRE 10:208-39A. Playwrights FrenchEnglish (England)HungarianGermanB. Producers1. On the StageEnglishGerman2. Motion PicturesEnglandFranceHungaryRussiaUnited States3. Actors1. On the StageFranceGermany and AustriaHollandUnited StatesYiddishHebrew2. Motion Pictures (all United States)ActorsDirectorsD. Dramatic CriticsJEWS IN TRAVEL AND EXPLORATIONTRAVELERS AND TRAVEL LITERATURE 10:297CARTOGRAPHY 3:53EXPLORATION AND EXPLORERS 4:215-17JEWS IN VARIOUS FIELDSAnthropologistsCriminologistsEngineersGeologistsOrientalistsPhilologistsPhysicistsPsychologistsNOTEWORTHY JEWSREADING GUIDE AND INDEXINDEXAAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )
reading guide index universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks great introduction areas covered entries hyperlinked relevant articles
eBookshuk Books

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

Studies in Jewish Education IV: Curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew
The present volume, the fourth in the series Studies in Jewish Education, is dedicated to the subject of curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The Jewish Encyclopedia
The monumental 12-volume work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America, written by more than 400 contributors from all over the world--many considered the founding fathers of their respective disciplines,--The Jewish Encyclopedia remains a standard requirement for any collection of  Judaica. Each of its 12 volumes was re-cr

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.