Reading Guide and Index, The Universal...

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THE SEVEN- BRANCHED LIGHT A Reading Guide and Index toThe Universal Jewish EncyclopediaAn Authoritative and Popular Presentation of Jews and Judaism Since the Earliest TimesISAAC LANDMAN, D. D., EditorCompiled bySIMON COHEN, D. D. Director of ResearchArrangedforconvenient researchandreferenceby readers, students, teachersEspecially designedto stimulateand facilitateadultJewisheducation

Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterTitle PageCopyright PageTable Of ContentsINTRODUCTIONABBREVIATIONSContentsHISTORYJEWISH HISTORY IN GENERALJEWISH HISTORY BY PERIODS1. The Building of the Nation (about 1500 to 1000 B.C.E.)a. The Traditional Beginningsb. The Land of Canaanc. Settlement and Early Struggles of the Israelites Twelve Tribes 10:330 (there are separate articles on each of the tribes)d. Cult Objects and Institutions2. The Period of the Kingdom (1000 to 586 B.C.E.)a. Political Historyb. Nations and Rulers with Which the Israelites Came into Contactc. Religious Institutions and Movementsd. Important Leaders3. The Babylonian Exile (586 to 539 B.C.E.)4. The Persian Period (539 to 331 B.C.E.)a. Foreign Rulersb. New Institutions and Movementsc. Other Jewish Settlementsd. Jewish Leaders5. The Greek Period (331 to 165 B.C.E.)a. Foreign Rulersb. Other Countries of Jewish Settlementc. New Institutions and Movementsd. Jewish Leaders6. The Hasmonean Period (165 to 37 B.CE.)a. The Struggle for Independenceb. The Hasmonean Dynastyc. Rulers or Generals of Other Countriesd. Other Countries near Judeae. New Movementsf. Other Jewish Settlements7. Loss of Independence (37 B.CE. to 70 C.E.)a. Rulers of Palestineb. Roman Leaders and Emperorsc. Other Countriesd. New Movementse. Jewish Leaders8. The Mishnaic-Talmudic Period (70 to 500)a. Roman Emperorsb. Countries Other than Palestinec. New Movements and Institutionsd. Jewish Leaders9. The Babylonian Center (400 to 1000)a. Countries of Jewish Settlementb. Institutionsc. Jewish Leaders10. The Arabic Period (628 to 1200)a. Rise of Islamb. Lands Conquered by the Arabs or at War with Themc. New Movements in Judaismd. Jewish Leaders11. The Golden Age in Spain (950 to 1350)a. Countries of Jewish Settlementb. New Movementsc. Notable Jews12. The Era of Persecutions and Expulsions (1096 to 1492)a. Attacks and Mass Expulsionsb. Specific Forms of Persecutionc. New Unfavorable Position of the Jewsd. Other Countries of Jewish Settlemente. Notable Jews13. The Polish Center (1250 to 1772)a. Rise and Decline of the Polish Centerb. Other Countries of Jewish Settlementc. The New American Settlementsd. Institutions and New Movementse. Notable Jews14. The Messianic Movements (1650 to 1750)15. The Revolt Against Tradition (1740 on)a. New Movementsb. Notable Jews16. Emancipation (1776 to 1917)a. Historical Eventsb. Notable Jews17. Zionism (1880 to 1935)a. Historical Eventsb. Notable Leaders18. The American and Palestinian Centers (1880 on)a. Historical Eventsb. Notable Jews19. The Period After the First World War (1920 on)a. Chief Developmentsb. Countries of Europe and Africa Affected by Anti-Semitismc. Other Countries of Jewish SettlementUNITED STATESAMERICAN CONTINENT 1:231-34, 234-35UNITED STATESA. New England StatesB. Middle Atlantic StatesC. Southeastern StatesD. Middle West StatesE. Southwestern StatesF. Western StatesG. Far Western StatesH. TerritoriesCANADACANADA 2:651-56WEST INDIESWEST INDIES 10:507CENTRAL AMERICACENTRAL AMERICA 3:88SOUTH AMERICASOUTH AMERICA 9:665-66THE BRITISH ISLESENGLAND 4:110-30 (illus. 9:376)Southeastern EnglandSouthwestern EnglandNorthern EnglandSCOTLAND 9:446-47IRELAND 5:585-86THE IBERIAN PENINSULASPAIN 9:682-90Northeastern SpainCentral SpainSouthern SpainPORTUGAL 8:606-7GERMANYGERMANY 4:541-84Provinces West of the RhineThe RhinelandNorthern GermanyCentral GermanySouthernGermanyEastern GermanyITALY AND MALTAITALY 5:625-39Northern ItalyCentral ItalySouthern ItalySMALLER COUNTRIES OF NORTHERN EUROPEBELGIUM 2:148-50HOLLAND 5:421-41 (illus. 10:7)LUXEMBURG 7:241-43DENMARK 3:534-36NORWAY 8:242-44SWEDEN 10:112-13FINLAND 4:308-9ESTONIA 4:171-72LATVIA 6:549-50LITHUANIA 7:135-37POLANDPOLAND 8:564-78 (illus. 1:194)Western PolandCentral PolandEastern PolandGALICIA 4:493-99SMALLER COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL EUROPESWITZERLAND 10:114-16CZECHOSLOVAKIA 3:439-43Bohemia 2:439-41Moravia 7:641-42SlovakiaRuthenia 9:288AUSTRIA: 1:623-30Upper AustriaLower AustriaBurgenland 2:590-9HUNGARY 5:483-503Western HungaryThe Banat (under Yugoslavia from 1919 to 1941)Central HungaryCities under Czechoslovakian rule from 1919 to 1939Eastern HungaryTHE BALKAN STATESYUGOSLAVIA 10:617-21ROUMANIA 9:247-65Transylvania and Banat (formerly part of Hungary)Bucovina 2:573-74ALBANIA 1:156-57GREECE 5:91-93RUSSIARUSSIA 9:278-86SOVIET RUSSIA 9:670-84White Russia 10:511Ukraine 10:334-39 (illus. 1:257)Bessarabia 2:244-48Great RussiaCrimea 3:412-16Caucasus 3:68-69AFRICAALGERIA 1:180-82TUNIS AND TUNISIA 10:323-24 (illus. 3:76)LIBYA 7:44-46EGYPT 4:5-16ETHIOPIA 4:182-85BELGIAN CONGO 2:148KENYA 6:363ANGOLAMADAGASCAR 7:267PALESTINEPALESTINE 8:347-73 (illus. 9:441; 10:121)WESTERN ASIATURKEY 10:326-29CYPRUS 3:437-38SYRIA 10:134-36PETRA 8:471-72ARABIA 1:438-41ARMENIA 1:482-83CENTRAL ASIAIRAQ 5:585PERSIA 8:460-66BOKHARA 2:443-44TURKESTAN 10:325-26AFGHANISTAN 1:106INDIA 5:553-57BURMA 2:605-6SIBERIA 9:524-25THE FAR EASTCHINA 3:156-59JAPAN 6:38-40PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 8:486-87SINGAPORE 9:554NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES 8:151-52AUSTRALIA 1:6l7-22TASMANIA 10:177NEW ZEALAND 8:205HISTORIANS OF THE JEWSHISTORIOGRAPHY 5:386-98a. Sourcesb. Ancient Jewish Historiansc. Medieval Historiansd. Modern HistoriansLITERATURELANGUAGES OF THE JEWSVERNACULARS 10:406-9HEBREWHEBREW LANGUAGE 5:276-81JEWISH LITERATUREA. Jewish Literature Classified by LanguageB. Jewish Literature Classified by CategoriesC. General Types of Literary ActivityD. Individual Features in Jewish LiteratureE. Special Topics in Jewish LiteratureTHE CONTENTS OF THE BIBLEBIBLE 2:280-84Pentateuch 8:434Prophets (see 8:658)Hagiographa 5:164-65Genesis 4:528-30Exodus, Book of 4:212-15Leviticus 7:4-5Numbers 8:248-49Nehemiah 8:146-48BIBLE INTERPRETATION AND INTERPRETERS1. BIBLE EXEGESIS 2:301-62. BIBLE CRITICISM 2:284-93Hexateuch 5:352-54BIBLE INFLUENCE ON CIVILIZATIONBible Translations 2 :334-46Bible Reading 2:333-34Hebraisms 5:270Bible in Art 2:306-16Bible in Drama 2:316-19Bible in Literature 2:319-26Bible in Music 2:326-27APOCRYPHA AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHAAPOCRYPHA 1:422-24PSEUDEPIGRAPHA 9:20THE TALMUDTALMUD 10:160-651. Zeraim 10:6402. Moed 7:6083. Nashim 8:1024. Nezikin 8:2165. Kodashim 6:4256. Toharoth 10:260Talmud Tractates, Minor 10:167-681. The Chain of Tradition2. Tannaim 10:170-71First GenerationThird GenerationFourth GenerationFifth GenerationSixth GenerationUncertain PeriodFirst Palestinian GenerationSecond Palestinian GenerationSecond Babylonian GenerationThird Palestinian GenerationThird Babylonian GenerationFourth Palestinian GenerationFourth Babylonian GenerationFifth Palestinian GenerationFifth Babylonian GenerationSixth Babylonian Generation4. Saboraim 9:301-2MIDRASHMIDRASH 7:538A. The Halachic Midrash CompilationsB. The Haggadic Midrash Compilations1. Midrash Rabbah 7:540-412. Other Midrash Compilations toBiblical Books3. General Midrash Compilations4. Articles or Sections of Articles Devoted to Midrashic ExpositionsHEBREW LITERATURELITERATURE, HEBREW 7:87-96YIDDISH LITERATURELITERATURE, YIDDISH 7:125-35BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTSBOOKS 2:458-70RELIGIONRELIGION IN GENERALRELIGION 9:124-261. Primitive Forms of Religion2. The Achievement of Monotheism3. Modern Speculations on ReligionRELIGION OF ISRAELRELIGION OF ISRAEL 9:126-281. The Struggle with Idolatry2. Shrines3. Cult Objects4. Modes of Learning the Will of God5. Consecrated Persons6. Mode of Worship7. Sacred Days8. Special IdeasJUDAISMJUDAISM 6:232-37Dogmas 3:585-86Creed 3:400-31. Articles of Faith2. Ethical and Social Ideals3. Personal Standards of Religious ConductJEWISH THEOLOGYTHEOLOGY 10:242-441. The Nature of God2. God and the World3. The Nature of Man4. God and Man5. God and Israel6. Revelation 9:147-487. Sin and Atonement8. The Fate of the Soul9. The Fate of the WorldJEWISH PHILOSOPHYPHILOSOPHY, JEWISH 8:500-15THE RELIGIOUS CALENDARTIME, MEASURING OF 10:251-53CUSTOMS AND CEREMONIESCEREMONIAL OBJECTS AND INSTITUTIONS 3:103-5A. The Life Span1. Birth and Infancy2. Youth3. Adult Life4. Death and Burial5. Mourning and Respect for the DeadB. The Religious Year6. The Year as a Whole7. Sabbath 9:295-99Holidays 5:410-l6Holidays, Second Day of 5:416Pilgrimage Festivals 8:531Processions 8:650-518. Passover 8:408-109. Shabuoth 9:490-9110. Rosh Hashanah 9:22711. Yom Kippur 10:604-512. Sukkoth 10:95-9713. Shemini Atzereth 9:502-314. Hanukah 5:209-1115. Purim 9:36-4216. Minor Festive Occasions17. Fasting and Fast Days 4:249-52CEREMONIAL LAW 3:94-103LITURGYPRAYER 8:617-19DIVINE SERVICE 3:575-77LITURGY 7:139-43A. Private PrayersB. Public Services1. The Basic Prayers2. The Principal Services of the Day (arranged in the order of their origin)3. The Daily Service4. Special Features of the Sabbath (and sometimes Festival) Service5. Special Features of the Festival Services6. Special Features of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Service7. Special Features for Services on Other Occasions8. Biblical Characters Especially Mentioned in the LiturgyPRAYER-BOOKS 8:619-21Literature, Devotional 7:85-86ETHICS AND MORALITYETHICS 4:174-81MORALITY 7:640-411. Ethical Ideals2. The Emotions3. Relations to Others4. Duties to the Community5. Ethical Issues in Life6. Ethical LiteratureJEWISH MYSTICISMMYSTICISM 8:73-76CABALA 2:614-20ANGELS AND DEMONSANGELS 1:304-14DEMONS 3:529-34SECTS AND DIVISIONS IN JUDAISMSECTS 9:453HERESY 5:320-21CONTROVERSIES 3:339-41Samaritans 9:335-39Sadducees 9:308-9Pharisees 8:473-76Essenes 4:167-68Zealots 10:630-31Karaites 6:314-19Hasidism 5:237-4lReform Movement 9:101-3Musar Movement 8:43-44JUDAISM IN AMERICA 6:237-46FAMILY AND SOCIAL LIFEFAMILY AND FAMILY LIFE 4:242-44JEWISH LIFECOSTUMECOSTUMES 3:375-81DIET AND HYGIENEDietary Laws 3:564Kashruth 6:327-31Slaughtering, Ritual 9:562-65Purity, Ritual 9:42-43Hygiene of the Jews 5:509-14Social Hygiene of the Jews 9:578-79JEWISH MUSICFOLK SONGS 4:350-55MUSIC, SYNAGOGAL 8:48-55STRIKING JEWISH PHRASESAMUSEMENTSJEWISH EDUCATIONSTUDY 10:90-91EDUCATION 3:629-401. Rabbinical Seminaries2. Institutions for Jewish Studies Akademie fr die Wissenschaft des JudentumsSYNAGOGUESYNAGOGUE 10:119-30COMMUNITY AND COMMUNAL ORGANIZATIONJEWISH COMMUNITY AND COMMUNAL ORGANIZATIONS 6:99-1261. The Jewish Community in Bible Times2. The Jewish Community in the Talmudic Period3. The Jewish Community in the Middle Ages4. The Jewish Community in Modern Times5. Community Government6. Functionaries, Religious and Communal 4:470-777. Community Records8. Community Titles9. Community Charactersa. Of International Scopeb. In Argentinec. In Austriad. In Englande. In Germanyf. In Roumaniag. In the United States: Generalh. In the United States: By Country of Origini. Fraternal Ordersj. Agricultural AssociationsSOCIAL WELFARECHARITY 3:113-14PHILANTHROPY 8:484-85SOCIAL LEGISLATION 9:579-80SOCIAL SERVICE, JEWISH 9:580-83JEWISH LAW: Source and DevelopmentTORAH 10:267-69Precepts, The 613 8:623-29LAW, JEWISH: SOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF 6:557-61JEWISH LAW: Individual Laws and Legal PrinciplesLAW, JEWISH: CLASSIFICATION OF 6:554-571. General Legal Principles and Enactments2. Offenses Against Persons3. Offenses Against Property4. Domestic and Sexual Relations5. Inheritance Law6. Business Law7. Property Law8. Real Estate Law9. Legal Documents10. Law of Representation11. Religious LawJEWISH LAW: Court ProcedureCOURTS 3:385-89ANIMALS AND PLANTSFAUNA OF PALESTINE 4:256-64FLORA OF PALESTINE 4:331-41JEWS AND NON-JEWSJUDAISM AND OTHER RELIGIONS1. The Religions of Canaan2. Religions of the Ancient World3. Christianity 3:177-864. Islam 5:610-135. Modern Religious MovementsCHRISTIANITYCHRISTIANITY 3:177-861. Christian LiteratureNew Testament 8:174-75Gospels 5:68-69Revelation, Book of 9:148-492. Christian LeadersPaul 8:415-17Church Fathers 3:203-43. Christian Sects4. Christian Doctrines5. Christian Rites and Institutions6. Relations Between Christians and JewsJEWS AS OBSERVED BY NON-JEWSGreek Writers on Jews 5:93-95Roman Writers on Jews 9:185-86Christian Writers on Jews 3:175-76Literature on and by Jews 7:100-25American Literature on and by Jews I.1:259-62ANTI-SEMITISMANTI-SEMITISM 1:34l-4091. Anti-Semitic Racial Theories2. Anti-Semitic Canards and Their Refutation3. Attempts to Convert the Jews by Force4. Attacks on Jewish Literature5. Economic and Social Measures Against the Jews6. Outbreaks of Violence7. Incidents in which Anti-Semitism was an Important Factor8. Notorious Anti-Semites (in chronological order)9. Defense Against Anti-SemitismPHILO-SEMITESPHILO-SEMITES 8:497-99INTERVENTION 5:581-82GENERAL SUBJECTSJEWISH ARCHEOLOGYARCHEOLOGY, JEWISH 1:459-66SYMBOLSSYMBOLS AND SYMBOLISM 10:118-19FOLKLOREFOLKLORE 4:348-491. The Folklore of the Bible2. Attempts to Ascertain the Future3. MAGIC 7:273-754. SUPERSTITION 10:103-45. Fabulous Animals6. LEGENDS 6:590-917. Legends of Jewish Content but Non-Jewish Origin8. Ceremonies in Which There is a Folklore BasisFAMILIES AND FAMILY TREESGENEALOGY 4:526-27MESSIAH AND MESSIANIC MOVEMENTSMESSIAH 7:499-503MESSIANIC ERA 7:503-4MESSIANIC MOVEMENTS 7:505-6POLITICAL AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTSDemocracy 3:522-28Asceticism 1:532-33Internationalism 5:579-81Masonry 7:397-99Religious Liberty 9:128-31Anti-Slavery Movement and the Jews 1:410Anarchism 1:294Labor Movement and the Jews 6:504-5Nationalism, Jewish 8:126-32Pacifism 8:341-42Communism 3:315-20LABOR AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONSLABOR 6:497-504LABOR MOVEMENT AND THE JEWS 6:504-5ZIONISMZIONISM 10:645-67RACE, NATION OR RELIGION?RACE, JEWISH 9:60-62NATIONALISM, JEWISH 8:126-32CHOSEN PEOPLE 3:164-69 MISSION OF ISRAEL 7:582-84FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT JEWSSTATISTICS 10:23-36CONVERTS 3:341-46PROSELYTES 9:1-3Mixed Marriage 7:593-98OCCUPATIONS 8:265-79CASTES 3:60JEWISH CONTRIBUTIONS TO CIVILIZATIONJEWS IN ART AND ARCHITECTUREART, JEWS IN 1:489-500ARCHITECTURE 1:466-67JEWS IN ASTRONOMYASTRONOMY 1:571-76JEWS IN ATHLETICSATHLETICS 1:581-99JEWS IN AVIATIONAVIATION, JEWS IN 1:644-47JEWS IN BIOLOGYBIOLOGY, JEWS IN 2:362-67JEWS IN CHEMISTRYALCHEMY 1:164-66CHEMISTRY 3:125-31BelgiumEnglandGermanyHollandUnited StatesJEWS IN CHESSCHESS 3:133-34JEWS IN DENTISTRYDENTISTRY, JEWS IN 3:536-37JEWS AS EDUCATORSUNIVERSITIES 10:363-76JEWS IN FINANCEFINANCE, JEWS IN 4:289-302MONEY LENDING 7:618-22Various Countries in EuropeEnglandFranceGermany and AustriaRussiaPolandRoumaniaHungaryJEWS IN INDUSTRYJEWS AS INVENTORSSCIENCE AND INVENTION 9:443-44JEWS IN JOURNALISMPERIODICALS AND PRESS 8:437-57AustriaDenmarkEnglandFranceGermanyHollandHungaryJapanUnited StatesAnglo-JewishHebrewYiddishJEWS IN LITERATURELITERATURE ON AND BY JEWS 7:100-25AMERICAN LITERATRE ON AND BY JEWS 1:262-70EnglishGermanyFrenchHungarianItalianScandinavian LanguagesDutchSpanishPolishRussianRoumanianJEWS IN MATHEMATICSMATHEMATICS, JEWS IN 7:408-11JEWS IN MEDICINEMEDICINE 7:434-36HYGIENE OF THE JEWS 5:509-14PHYSICIANS 8:523-27JEWS IN MUSICMUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THE JEWS 8:55-66MUSICIANS, JEWISH 8:66-68JEWS IN PHILOSOPHYJEWS IN PUBLIC OFFICEPUBLIC OFFICE, JEWS IN 9:22-31AustraliaAustriaBelgiumBritish EmpireCanadaCzechoslovakiaDenmarkFranceGermanyHollandHungaryItalyLatviaNew ZealandPolandRussiaTurkeyUnited States DiplomatsCabinet MembersJudiciarySenatorsGovernors of States and TerritoriesMiscellaneousJEWS AS SOLDIERSSOLDIER, JEW AS 9:594-633United StatesColonial and Revolutionary PeriodFrom the Revolution to the Civil WarCivil WarFrom the End of the Civil War to 1943In the United States NavyEnglandFranceGermanyItalyRussiaAustraliaOther CountriesJEWS IN THE THEATRETHEATRE 10:208-39A. Playwrights FrenchEnglish (England)HungarianGermanB. Producers1. On the StageEnglishGerman2. Motion PicturesEnglandFranceHungaryRussiaUnited States3. Actors1. On the StageFranceGermany and AustriaHollandUnited StatesYiddishHebrew2. Motion Pictures (all United States)ActorsDirectorsD. Dramatic CriticsJEWS IN TRAVEL AND EXPLORATIONTRAVELERS AND TRAVEL LITERATURE 10:297CARTOGRAPHY 3:53EXPLORATION AND EXPLORERS 4:215-17JEWS IN VARIOUS FIELDSAnthropologistsCriminologistsEngineersGeologistsOrientalistsPhilologistsPhysicistsPsychologistsNOTEWORTHY JEWSREADING GUIDE AND INDEXINDEXAAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )
reading guide index universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks great introduction areas covered entries hyperlinked relevant articles
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AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


(Torah: the New Russian Translation)
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Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

Ezra Studies


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as anchor and compass for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's spiritual Zionism is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

Literary Studies In The Hebrew Bible Form And Content
This volume focuses on some major issues in biblical research. In the studies collected in this volume, the author aims at highlighting salient literary modes which can be identified the books of the Hebrew Bible.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN ( Court): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Nazvanie
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The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Thesaurus of the Medieaval Hebrew Poetry, in 4 volumes
Lists 35,000 poems and prayers culled from printed and manuscript sources (many from Cairo Genizah) and their variations, i.e. almost every Hebrew poem and its variations composed after canonization of the Hebrew Bible until 18th c.e.... with listings of sacred poetry reaching into the 20th century.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4
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Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the Geschichte der Juden, the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice
This is the most detailed and comprehensive guide to Jewish practice for home and synagogue, written in the spirit of Modern Orthodox and Conservative movements.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

Literary Studies In The Hebrew Bible Form And Content
This volume focuses on some major issues in biblical research. In the studies collected in this volume, the author aims at highlighting salient literary modes which can be identified the books of the Hebrew Bible.