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by S. R. Driver
C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x 2 The First Book of Samuel, Philippi, ZDMG. 1878, pp. 64– 67, Strack, Genesis 2, p. 135 f.; GK. § 88c) that in this and many other proper names, if not in all, the duai form is not original, but is a later artificial expansion, of an original substantival termination in ם —ָ ( GK. § § 85b, 1000g, h). This is based partly upon the fact that in parallel texts several of these names occur without the י ; partly upon the fact that many of the duals yield a meaning improbable in itself as the name of a place, or inconsistent with the character of the places so far as they have been identified; and partly on the fact that the most common of these dual forms יְרוּשָׁלִַ ם , is shewn by the Tell el- Amarna tablets to have ended originally in - im ( so נַהֲרַיִם , in ארם־ נהרים , is in the Tell el- Amarna letters Narima: cf. שָֽׁמְרַוִן , which must have arisen out of שָֽׁמְרָן , Aram. form of the Heb. שֽׁׄמְרוֹן , ‘ Samaria’). Thus we have הָעֵינַיִם Gen. 38, 21,  butעֵינָם Jos. 15, 34 ( cf.  דּׄתַיִן Gen. 37, 17a,  but דּׄתָן ib b1, 2 Ki. 6, 13  2);1  קִרְיָתַיִם Ch. 6, 613,  but קַרְתָּן Jos. 21, 32;  קִרְיָתַיִם ( Nu. 32, 37. Jos. 13, 193. Jer. 48, 1. 23 3, Ez. 25, 9 4),  בֵּית־ דִּבְלָתַיִם ( Jer. 48, 223),  חׄרׄגַיִם ( Is. 15, 5 5. Jer. 48, 33. 53. 343),  but in Mesha’s inscr., l. 10 קריתן , l. 30 בת רבלתן , ll. 31, 32 חורנן . Other dual forms of nouns cited by Philippi and Strack are אֶגְלַיִם Is. 15, 8 6;  7 אֲדוֹרַיִם 2 Ch. 11, 9;  3 אֶפְרַיִם 2 S. 13, 23; גְּדֵרׄתַיִם Jos. 15, 36; 2  גִּתַּיִם S. 4, 3 8. Neh. 11, 33;  חֲפָרַיִם Jos. 19, 19; מַחֲנַיִם Gen. 32, 3. Jos. 13, 26. 30. 21, 38 (= 1 Ch. 6, 65  9). 2 S. 2. 8  10.12  11. 29. 17, 2411. 2711. 19, 3311. 1 Ki. 2, 8  12. 4, 14 12;  עֲדִיתַיִם Jos. 15, 36; עֵין־ עֶגְלַיִם Ez. 47, 106; צְמָרַיִם Jos. 18, 22. 2 Ch. 13, 4 13;  קִבְצַיִם Jos. 21, שַׁעֲרַיִם ; 22 Jos. 15, 366:  cf. 2  עֶפְרַיִן Ch. 13, 19  Qrê ( Kt. 14 ( עֶפְרוֹן . Still all these do not necessarily fall into the same category, and some may have been really duals. In several, as the notes will have shewn, the dual is also expressed in LXX ( cod. B). If there were two hills at Samuel’s village, as there are at Gezer, הָרָמָתַ֫ יִם would be a very natural name for it. And we have the corresponding form 15 in the Syr. version of 1 Mace. 11, 34. Cf. König, ii. 437; and note the forcible arguments of G. B. Gray, EB. iii. 3319. 1 LXX ( A) each time Δωθα@ ιμ. 2 LXX ( B) Δωθα@ ιμ. 3 LXX - αιμ. 4 LXX πόλ@ ως παραθαλασσίας (= 5 .( קרית ’ ימה LXX – ι@ ιμ. 6 LXX -@ ιμ. 7 LXX Αδωραι. 8 LXX Γ@ θθαι. 9 LXX Μααναιθ. 10 LXX - α@ μ. 11 LXX - α@ ιμ. 12 LXX Μααναι@ gον. 13 LXX Σομορων. 14 LXX Ε£ ρων. 15 Codd. AS corruptly ‘ Ραθαμ@ ιν: others ‘ Ραμαθ@ μ.

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< < C h a p t e r >> Home | T O C | I n d e x 2 The First Book of Samuel, Philippi, ZDMG. 1878, pp. 64– 67, Strack, Genesis 2, p. 135 f.; GK. § 88c) that in this and many other proper names, if not in all, the duai form is not original, but is a later artificial expansion, of an original substantival termination in ם —ָ ( GK. § § 85b, 1000g, h). This is based partly upon the fact that in parallel texts several of these names occur without the י ; partly upon the fact that many of the duals yield a meaning improbable in itself as the name of a place, or inconsistent with the character of the places so far as they have been identified; and partly on the fact that the most common of these dual forms יְרוּשָׁלִַ ם , is shewn by the Tell el- Amarna tablets to have ended originally in - im ( so נַהֲרַיִם , in ארם־ נהרים , is in the Tell el- Amarna letters Narima: cf. שָֽׁמְרַוִן , which must have arisen out of שָֽׁמְרָן , Aram. form of the Heb. שֽׁׄמְרוֹן , ‘ Samaria’). Thus we have הָעֵינַיִם Gen. 38, 21, but עֵינָם Jos. 15, 34 ( cf. דּׄתַיִן Gen. 37, 17a, but דּׄתָן ib b1, 2 Ki. 6, 13 2); 1 קִרְיָתַיִם Ch. 6, 613, but קַרְתָּן Jos. 21, 32; קִרְיָתַיִם ( Nu. 32, 37. Jos. 13, 193. Jer. 48, 1. 23 3, Ez. 25, 9 4), בֵּית־ דִּבְלָתַיִם ( Jer. 48, 223), חׄרׄגַיִם ( Is. 15, 5 5. Jer. 48, 33. 53. 343), but in Mesha’s inscr., l. 10 קריתן , l. 30 בת רבלתן , ll. 31, 32 חורנן . Other dual forms of nouns cited by Philippi and Strack are אֶגְלַיִם Is. 15, 8 6; 7 אֲדוֹרַיִם 2 Ch. 11, 9; 3 אֶפְרַיִם 2 S. 13, 23; גְּדֵרׄתַיִם Jos. 15, 36; 2 גִּתַּיִם S. 4, 3 8. Neh. 11, 33; חֲפָרַיִם Jos. 19, 19; מַחֲנַיִם Gen. 32, 3. Jos. 13, 26. 30. 21, 38 (= 1 Ch. 6, 65 9). 2 S. 2. 8 10. 12 11. 29. 17, 2411. 2711. 19, 3311. 1 Ki. 2, 8 12. 4, 14 12; עֲדִיתַיִם Jos. 15, 36; עֵין־ עֶגְלַיִם Ez. 47, 106; צְמָרַיִם Jos. 18, 22. 2 Ch. 13, 4 13; קִבְצַיִם Jos. 21, שַׁעֲרַיִם ; 22 Jos. 15, 366: cf. 2 עֶפְרַיִן Ch. 13, 19 Qrê ( Kt. 14 ( עֶפְרוֹן . Still all these do not necessarily fall into the same category, and some may have been really duals. In several, as the notes will have shewn, the dual is also expressed in LXX ( cod. B). If there were two hills at Samuel’s village, as there are at Gezer, הָרָמָתַ֫ יִם would be a very natural name for it. And we have the corresponding form 15 in the Syr. version of 1 Mace. 11, 34. Cf. König, ii. 437; and note the forcible arguments of G. B. Gray, EB. iii. 3319. 1 LXX ( A) each time Δωθα@ ιμ. 2 LXX ( B) Δωθα@ ιμ. 3 LXX - αιμ. 4 LXX πόλ@ ως παραθαλασσίας (= 5 .( קרית ’ ימה LXX – ι@ ιμ. 6 LXX -@ ιμ. 7 LXX Αδωραι. 8 LXX Γ@ θθαι. 9 LXX Μααναιθ. 10 LXX - α@ μ. 11 LXX - α@ ιμ. 12 LXX Μααναι@ gον. 13 LXX Σομορων. 14 LXX Ε£ ρων. 15 Codd. AS corruptly ‘ Ραθαμ@ ιν: others ‘ Ραμαθ@ μ.
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