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by S. R. Driver
C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x xcv NOTE ON THE MAPS The Maps in this volume have been drawn by Mr. B. V. Darbishire, of Oxford. The Map of the Pass of Michmas is reproduced, by permission, from a Map by Gustaf Dalman, the well- known Hebrew and Aramaic scholar, now Director of the German Evangelical Archaeological Institute in Jerusalem, in the ZDMG. ( see particulars in the note attached to the Map): and the three Maps of Sections of Palestine are based upon Maps published by the Palestine Exploration Fund, and by Messrs. John Bartholomew & Co., of Edinburgh. In the three last- named Maps the coloured contours, geographical features, and modern sites, are reproduced ( with permission) from the sources mentioned: the ancient sites have been reproduced from them only after a careful examination of the data on which the determination of the sites depends, such as rest upon questionable or inconclusive grounds being marked by a query, while those which rest upon clearly insufficient grounds are omitted altogether. The identification of a modern with an ancient site depends mostly, it must be remembered, in cases in which the ancient name itself has not been unambiguously preserved, partly upon historical, but very largely upon philological considerations: and men who are admirable surveyors, and who can write valuable descriptions of the physical features, topography, or antiquities of a country, are not necessarily good philologists. Hence the 3/ 8 in. to the mile Map of Palestine containing ancient sites, published by the P. E. F., Bartholomew’s Maps, and in fact current English Maps of Palestine in general ( with the exception of those in the Encyclopaedia Biblica), include many highly questionable and uncertain identifications 1. Maps described as being ‘ according to the P. E. F. Survey’ are not better than others: the description is in fact misleading; for the ‘ Survey’ relates only to the physical geography, and modern topography of the country: the ancient sites marked on such a map are an addition to what is actually determined by the ‘ Survey:’ the authority attaching to the ‘ Survey’ does not consequently extend to them at all; and, as a matter of fact, many rest upon a most precarious basis. In the articles and notes referred to above ( p. X n.), I have taken a number of names, including, for instance, Succoth and Penuel  ( Exp. Times, xiii. 457 ff.), Luhith ( Is. 15, 5;  ib. xxi. 495 ff.), and Ja‘ zer ( Is. 16, 8,  and elsewhere; ib. xxi. 562 f.), and shewn in detail how very uncertain the proposed identifications are 2. An example or two may be mentioned here. The compilers of the 3/ 8 in. to the mile P. E. F. Map, referred to above, mark on the SW. of the Sea of Galilee the 1 On the principles which should regulate the identification of modern Arabic with ancient Hebrew place- names, the scholarly articles of Kampffmeyer, ZDPV. xv ( 1892), 1– 33, 65– 116, xvi ( 1893), 1– 71, should be consulted. 2 Guthe’s beautiful and very complete Bibelatlas in 20 Haupt- und 28 Neben-karten ( 1911) may be commended to English students as eminently instructive and scholarly. And the forthcoming Historical Atlas of the Holy Land, by G. A. Smith, is likely to prove in all respects adequate and trustworthy. Note on the Maps

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< < C h a p t e r >> Home | T O C | I n d e x xcv NOTE ON THE MAPS The Maps in this volume have been drawn by Mr. B. V. Darbishire, of Oxford. The Map of the Pass of Michmas is reproduced, by permission, from a Map by Gustaf Dalman, the well- known Hebrew and Aramaic scholar, now Director of the German Evangelical Archaeological Institute in Jerusalem, in the ZDMG. ( see particulars in the note attached to the Map): and the three Maps of Sections of Palestine are based upon Maps published by the Palestine Exploration Fund, and by Messrs. John Bartholomew & Co., of Edinburgh. In the three last- named Maps the coloured contours, geographical features, and modern sites, are reproduced ( with permission) from the sources mentioned: the ancient sites have been reproduced from them only after a careful examination of the data on which the determination of the sites depends, such as rest upon questionable or inconclusive grounds being marked by a query, while those which rest upon clearly insufficient grounds are omitted altogether. The identification of a modern with an ancient site depends mostly, it must be remembered, in cases in which the ancient name itself has not been unambiguously preserved, partly upon historical, but very largely upon philological considerations: and men who are admirable surveyors, and who can write valuable descriptions of the physical features, topography, or antiquities of a country, are not necessarily good philologists. Hence the 3/ 8 in. to the mile Map of Palestine containing ancient sites, published by the P. E. F., Bartholomew’s Maps, and in fact current English Maps of Palestine in general ( with the exception of those in the Encyclopaedia Biblica), include many highly questionable and uncertain identifications 1. Maps described as being ‘ according to the P. E. F. Survey’ are not better than others: the description is in fact misleading; for the ‘ Survey’ relates only to the physical geography, and modern topography of the country: the ancient sites marked on such a map are an addition to what is actually determined by the ‘ Survey:’ the authority attaching to the ‘ Survey’ does not consequently extend to them at all; and, as a matter of fact, many rest upon a most precarious basis. In the articles and notes referred to above ( p. X n.), I have taken a number of names, including, for instance, Succoth and Penuel ( Exp. Times, xiii. 457 ff.), Luhith ( Is. 15, 5; ib. xxi. 495 ff.), and Ja‘ zer ( Is. 16, 8, and elsewhere; ib. xxi. 562 f.), and shewn in detail how very uncertain the proposed identifications are 2. An example or two may be mentioned here. The compilers of the 3/ 8 in. to the mile P. E. F. Map, referred to above, mark on the SW. of the Sea of Galilee the 1 On the principles which should regulate the identification of modern Arabic with ancient Hebrew place- names, the scholarly articles of Kampffmeyer, ZDPV. xv ( 1892), 1– 33, 65– 116, xvi ( 1893), 1– 71, should be consulted. 2 Guthe’s beautiful and very complete Bibelatlas in 20 Haupt- und 28 Neben-karten ( 1911) may be commended to English students as eminently instructive and scholarly. And the forthcoming Historical Atlas of the Holy Land, by G. A. Smith, is likely to prove in all respects adequate and trustworthy. Note on the Maps
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