My Brother s Keeper: A History...

This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

9 : The First Fifteen Years and Austria— and the Bolshevik Revolution caused further disloca-tion and local wars. The Jewish minorities, not knowing with whom to side and occupying an unenviable middle- class position in this postwar struggle of nations and revolutionary masses, became the butt of every slander and persecution. Bloody pogroms instigated by Poles occurred in eastern Gali-cia and northeastern Poland. Even worse was the situation in the Ukraine, where Bolsheviks and their anti- Semitic White Russian opponents were struggling for control. Probably more than two hundred thousand Jews were killed or died in the 1918– 21 epidemics in eastern Poland and the Ukraine; seventy- five thou-sand more were wounded. Suffering was especially grim during the futile Polish- Soviet war of 1920– 21, fought over areas with large Jewish populations. The results were terrible. In Poland the total number of orphans after the war was estimated at seventy-five thousand. In the Ukraine it was said to be two hundred thou-sand. Sixty percent of the surviving children in Galicia alone suf-fered from tuberculosis. In the Ukraine five hundred Jewish com-munities had been abandoned, and about half a million Jews were economically ruined. With the suicide rate growing alarmingly and parents driven to desperation at the sight of starving children, some children were abandoned on the doorsteps of the relatively prosperous. 4 The destruction of European Jewry during World War II has ob-literated the memory of that first holocaust of the twentieth century in the wake of the first world conflict. Yet in pre- Auschwitz terms the experience was bad enough. Humanitarian groups such as JDC tried to respond in a suitable manner. After some misun-derstandings had been cleared up, JDC joined in the efforts of the $ 100 million effort by the American Relief Administration ( ARA), under Herbert Hoover, set up by Congress to help the people of Europe. JDC contributed $ 3.3 million, and in return JDC workers such as Boris D. Bogen were allowed to undertake aid missions to Jews in Eastern Europe as officials of ARA. Financed by a tremendous fund- raising effort that yielded a total   C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x For use on stand- alone, non- institutional computers only. To purchase Scholar PDF version with advanced functionality, go to www. publishersrow. com

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.


About Book My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.

FRONT MATTERTitle PageCopyright PageContentsTablesPrefaceIntroduction: The First Fifteen Years1. A Time of Crisis: 1929–19322. Agro-Joint3. Germany: 1933–19384. Refugees: 1933–19385. Prelude to the HolocaustPOLANDROMANIACZECHOSLOVAKIA AND HUNGARYTHE BALTIC STATES6. The Beginning of the EndAUSTRIAEVIANTHE REFUGEESZBASZYNJDC IN 1938/9THE “NIGHT OF CRYSTAL”EMIGRATION AND FLIGHTTHE RUBLEE-SCHACHT EPISODE AND THE COORDINATING FOUNDATIONILLEGAL MIGRATIONTHE END IN POLANDConclusionAppendix: Income and Expenditure of JDC: 1914–1939NotesBibliographyIndex
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