My Brother s Keeper: A History...

This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

6 : My Brother’s Keeper all. Sooner or later, it was hoped, the dangerous notion of nation-alism would disappear altogether. These beliefs were held very sincerely, and yet this was the time — the summer of 1914— when the whole structure of nineteenth-century liberalism collapsed. The collapse was accompanied by a disaster that struck the Jewish people in the eastern and southeast-ern parts of Europe and the Middle East. Three empires and a king-dom— Russia, Austria- Hungary, Germany, and Romania— were in-volved in a deadly conflict, and out of the more than fifteen mil-lion Jews of the world, ten million lived in these countries. Within a very short time there were five hundred thousand Jewish refugees in the Russian interior, driven there by the czarist armies. Four hun-dred thousand more fled before the advancing Russians into the interior of the Austro- Hungarian Empire. Then German armies overran large areas of formerly Russian Poland. Some eight hun-dred townships and villages where Jews lived were hit and severe-ly damaged, and about eighty thousand Jewish houses were de-stroyed.2 Yet,  significantly, the action of American Jewry was trig-gered by the alarming news that reached the U. S. regarding the fate of the eighty- five thousand Jews of Palestine. The first to act were the Orthodox Jews of overwhelmingly East European origin. On October 4, 1914, they founded the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering through the War. The main officers of the committee were Leon Kamaiky, Harry Fischel, Harry Lucas, and Morris Engelman. But Orthodox Jewry could hardly carry the burden by itself. The leadership of the American Jewish Committee therefore convened a meeting of forty organiza-tions which took place in New York on October 25, 1914. There a committee of five was elected: Oscar S. Straus, Louis D. Brandeis, Julian W. Mack, Harry Fischel ( of the Central Committee), and Meyer London ( of the socialists). This committee in turn asked one hundred prominent Jews from all walks of life to select officers for a new committee: the American Jewish Relief Committee ( AJRC). Louis Marshall was chairman, Felix M. Warburg, treasurer, and Cyrus L. Sulzberger, secretary.   C h a p t e r Home  | T O C  | I n d e x For use on stand- alone, non- institutional computers only. To purchase Scholar PDF version with advanced functionality, go to www. publishersrow. com

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.


About Book My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.

FRONT MATTERTitle PageCopyright PageContentsTablesPrefaceIntroduction: The First Fifteen Years1. A Time of Crisis: 1929–19322. Agro-Joint3. Germany: 1933–19384. Refugees: 1933–19385. Prelude to the HolocaustPOLANDROMANIACZECHOSLOVAKIA AND HUNGARYTHE BALTIC STATES6. The Beginning of the EndAUSTRIAEVIANTHE REFUGEESZBASZYNJDC IN 1938/9THE “NIGHT OF CRYSTAL”EMIGRATION AND FLIGHTTHE RUBLEE-SCHACHT EPISODE AND THE COORDINATING FOUNDATIONILLEGAL MIGRATIONTHE END IN POLANDConclusionAppendix: Income and Expenditure of JDC: 1914–1939NotesBibliographyIndex
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