Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient...

Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.



Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel


About Book Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel

Front Matter Half -title page Dedication page Title page Copyright page Table of contents PrefaceContents I. Labor, Crafts and Trade in the Bible1. Sheep and Cattle Raising2. Agriculture3. Arts and Crafts4. The Medical Profession5. The Wailing Women6. Levites and Priests7. Traders and Peddlers8. Scribes9. Indolence condemnedII. Industry and Trade in the Hellenistic Age1. Ecclesiastes on Labor2. Ben Sira's Views on Labor, Commerce, and Craftsa. Idlenessb. Change of Occupationc. Commerced. Physicianse. Scribesf. Miscellaneous Occupations and Acquisition of Wisdom3. Economic Progress during the Hasmonean AgeIII. Occupational Structure of the Rabbis1. General Characteristics of the Rabbinate2. Rabbis in Agriculture and Industryi Abba Hilkiahii R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanusiii R. Eleazar ben Azariahiv R. Tarfon? R. Eleazar ben Harsom?i R. Hiyya, his Sons and R. Simeon ben Halaftavii R. Johananviii R. Simonix Abba bar Abba and his son Samuelx Rab Assixi Abayexii R. Abba bar Abina, Rab Hisda, Rab Joseph and Rabba bar Rab Huna — Legal Problemsxiii Rab Hilkiah bar Tobixiv Rab Hunaxv Rab Hisdaxvi Rab Papaxvii Rab Papixviii Rab Bibi bar Abaye — Problems of Ethicsxix Rab Joseph — Problems of Ethicsxx Rabina — Problems of Ethicsxxi Student Agriculturistsxxii R. Ishmael, son of R. Jose3. Viniculturei R. Jannaiii R. Hiyya bar Addaiii Rab Joseph4. Rabbinic Land Surveyor — Rab Adda5. Woodchopper and Shepherd — R. Akiba6. Animal Hire Service — R. Jose of Yodkart7. Rabbis and Agricultural Laborersi R. Jose of Yodkartii R. Johanan ben Mathia8. Rabbis in Business — Silk Trade and Other Commercial Activitiesi R. Johanan ben Zakkaiii R. Hiyya, R. Simeon son of Judah the Patriarch, and R. Simeon ben Halaftaiii Abba bar Abba and R. Judah ben Bathyra IIiv R. Abba? Babylonian Rabbis and Silk Merchants in Palestinevi Silk Merchants as Missionaries and Convertsvii Commercial Ethics — R. Haninaviii R. Zeraix R. Abbahux Simeon ben Shetahxi Abba Shaul ben Botnith and R. Eleazar ben R. Zadokxii Commercial Ethics and Gentiles — General Rabbinic Attitudexiii R. Abdima and R. Hiyya bar Joseph — Unethical Business Practicesxiv Rab Hama and Rab Dimi — Market Privileges for Scholarsxv Rab Sofra — Business Disputesxvi R. Hiyya and R. Eleazar — Bankers and Money-changersxvii Dishonest Money-Changers9. Rabbis as Schoolteachers and Educatorsi R. Hiyyaii Samuel bar Shilathiii Rabiv Levi bar Sisi10. Rabbis as Professional Preachers11. Rabbinic Scribesi Nahumii Court Scribes — Ben Kararaiii R. Yeshebab the Scribeiv Nakai the Scribe? R. Ammivi Rab Hunavii Rab Aha bar Jacobviii R. Hanina the Writerix R. Meir and Rab Hananelx Income and Status of Scribes12. Rabbis as Physiciansi Relative Neglect of Medical Professionii Mar Samueliii R. Haninaiv R. Johanan? Preventive Medicine — R. Hiyya, Mar Ukba, Rab Judah, R. Johanan and Rabbah bar Rab Huna13. Rabbinic Craftsmeni Construction Worker — Shammaiii Carpenter — R. Abiniii Needlemaker — R. Joshuaiv Blacksmith — R. Yitzhak Nappahav Tanner — R. Josevi Sandal-maker — R. Johananvii Cobblers and Tailors — R. Abba bar Zemina, R. Judah the Tailor, R. Hanina and R. Oshaia14. Miscellaneous Rabbinic Occupationsi Tax-collector — R. Zera's Fatherii Detectives — R. Eleazar son of R. Simeon and R. Ishmael son of R. Joseiii Gladiator — R. Simeon ben Lakish 15. Occupations of Early ChristiansIV. Rabbinic Attitude to Physical Labor1. Moral Value of Work2. Divine Blessings depend on Human Efforts3. Work essential for Human Dignity4. Merit of Labor more potent than Fathers' Merit5. Miracles due to Work6. Labor as Part of Divine Plan since Adam7. Abraham and Isaac — Labor in the Promised Land8. Israel's Work on the Tabernacle — Condition of Divine Presence 9. Six Days you shall Labor 10. Tree-Planting in the Land of Israel11. The Divine Worker — The Craftsman's Pride in his Work12. Craftsmen, Scholars and Pilgrims13. Legal Privileges of Craftsmen and Laborers14. Work as a Social Necessity15. Torah and a Worldly Occupation16. Work Obligatory for Wives17. Work Essential for Prolonging Life18. Love Work 19. He who will not work, neither shall he eat20. Monotonous and Uninteresting Work not to be shunned21. Indolence Condemned22. How to find Work23. Labor honors the Worker24. Hard Work as a Cure for Colds25. Dissenting Views due to Hellenistic Influence26. Importance of Craft Skills27. Craft Skill as Social Security28. Craft Education29. Son should follow Father's Trade30. Study and Work — Antidote to Sin31. Work in the Scheme of Life32. Maimonides and the Three-Hour Workday33. Equality of Laborer and Scholar34. Minimum of Study — Maximum of Work35. Abandonment of Studies for Vocational Careers36. Torah Study as Exclusive or Principal Vocation37. Study and Work in Equal Proportions38. Torah and Commerce39. Higher Education for Eaters of Manna 40. Torah for Israel, Labor for Gentiles41. No Blessing in Manual Work42. Dislike of Economic Activity due to Self-Sacrifice for Torah43. Prosperous and Poverty-stricken Students44. Want and Destitution for the Sake of Learning45. Martyrdom on the Altar of TorahV. The Occupational Structure of the Jews in the Talmudic Age 1. Agriculture2. Buildingi Temple Buildersii Stone masonsiii Major Building Organization iv Building Laborers? Decline of Building Industry3. Textile Industry4. Pottery5. Glass Industry6. Metal Industry and Arms Manufacture7. Marketing and Trading Activities8. Commercial Ethics — Price Control9. Private Enterprise — Legal Problems10. Jewish Occupations in the Roman-Hellenistic Diasporai Alexandriaii Cyreneiii Minor Diaspora Communitiesiv RomeVI. Recommended and Undesirable Trades1. Clean and Easy Crafts2. Commerce and Business Education3. Trading in Sacred Commodities4. Bookkeeping and Accountancy5. Agriculturei Social and Economic Importanceii Agricultural Laborersiii Tenant Farmersiv Landless Ikkarim? Fixed-Term Laborersvi Intensive Agriculture — Galileevii Slavesviii Serfsix The Am Ha'ares — Disadvantages of Agriculturex Agricultural Counseling xi Olive-Growingxii Horticulture6. Sheep and Goat Breeding7. Medicinei The Physicianii Pagan Physiciansiii Judaeo-Christian Faith-Healers iv Talmudic Medicine? Medical Equipment8. Morally Undesirable Trades — General9. Bloodletting 10. Prison Administration11. Peddling12. Tanners13. Weavers14. Artistic Weavers15. Launderers16. Transport Workers — Ass-Drivers and Camel-Drivers17. Herdsmen and Shepherds18. Storekeepers19. Sailors20. Ritual Slaughterers and Butchers21. Hunters22. FishermenVII. Vocational Training — Masters and Apprentices1. Biblical and Hellenistic Periods2. Shepherd Apprentices3. Roman Age4. Apprenticeship Agreements5. Unsuitable Applicants for Apprenticeship6. Duration of Apprenticeship7. Relationship between Master and Apprentice8. Refusal to Teach a Crafti Temple Craftsmenii PhysiciansBack Matter Bibliographya. Primary Sourcesb. Modern LiteratureList of AbbreviationsGeneral IndexSourcesHEBREW BIBLEGENESISEXODUSLEVITICUSNUMBERSDEUTERONOMYJOSHUAJUDGESI SAMUELII SAMUELI KINGSII KINGSISAIAHJEREMIAHEZEKIELHOSEAAMOSMICAHNAHUMHAGGAIZECHARIAHMALACHIPSALMSPROVERBSCANTICLESLAMENTATIONSESTHERECCLESIASTESDANIELEZRANEHEMIAHI CHRONICLESII CHRONICLESAPOCRYPHA and PSEUDEPIGRAPHAECCLESIASTICUS(BEN SIRA)I MACCABEESTOBITTHE LETTER OF ARISTEASTHE SYRIAC APOCALYPSE OF BARUCHNEW TESTAMENTMATTHEWMARKLUKEJOHNACTSI CORINTHIANSCOLOSSIANSII THESSALONIANSHELLENISTIC-JEWISH LITERATUREPHILOIn FlaccumJOSEPHUS-THE JEWISH WAR (BELLUM IUDAICUM) JOSEPHUS-THE ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS JOSEPHUS-I APION JOSEPHUS-THE LIFE (VITA) RABBINIC LITERATUREMISHNAHBERAKHOTHPEAHDEMAIKILAYIMSHEBIITHMAASROTHBIKKURIMSHABB????RUBINPESAHIMSHEKALIMYOMASUKKAHBEZAHROSH HASHANATAANITH?OED ???ANKETUBOTHNEDARIMGITTINKIDDUSHI?BABA ????ABABA METSIABABA BATHRASANHEDRINEDUYOTHABODAH ZARAHABOTHMENAHOTHBEKHOROTHMIDDOTHKELIMNIDDAHMAKSHIRINZABIMTOSEFTABERAKHOTHPEAHDEMAIMAASER RISHONBIKKURIMSHABB????RUBINPESAHIMYOM HA-KIPPURIMBABA KAMMAMENAHOTHSUKKAHYOM TOBBABA METSIABEKHOROTHARAKHINMEGILLAHYEBAMOTHKETUBOTHKELIM-BABA METSIA NAZIRSOTAHGITTINKIDDUSHINBABA BATHRASANHEDRINEDUYOTHABODAH ZARAHKELIM-BABA BATHRA OHOLOTHNIDDAHHALAKHIC MIDRASHIMMEKHILTA de-RABBI YISHMAEL MEKHILTA de-RABBI SIMEON, edit. EPSTEIN SIFRA (TORATH KOHANIM) SIFRE(I)-NUMBERS SIFRE(I)-DEUTERONOMY TALMUD YERUSHALMIBERAKHOTHSHEBIITHTERUMOTH?RUBINPEAHMAASROTHPESAHIMBIKKURIMDEMAIKILAYIMSHABB???SHEKALIMYOMAYEBAMOTHBABA KAMMASUKKAHKETUBOTHBABA METSIABEZAHNEDARIMROSH HASHANAHNAZIRBABA BATHRATAANITHSOTAHSANHEDRINMEGILLAHGITTINABODAH ZARAHMOED ???ANKIDDUSHINNIDDAHHAGIGAHTALMUD BABLIBERAKHOTHBEZAH?RUBI?PESAHIMROSH HASHANAHTAANITHSHABB???MEGILLAHYOMASUKKAHMOED ???ANHAGIGAHYEBAMOTHGITTINKETUBOTHBABA METSIAKIDDUSHI?NEDARIMNAZIRSOTAHBABA KAMMABABA BATHRAMAKKOTHHULLINSHEBUOTHABODAH ZARAHBEKHOROTHSANHEDRINARAKHINHORAYOTHZEBAHIMMENAHOTHTEMURAHNIDDAHMINOR TRACTATESABOTH de-RABBI NATHAN-VERSION I ABOTH de-RABBI NATHAN-VERSION II DEREKH ERETZ ZUTA AGGADIC MIDRASHIMMIDRASH RABBAH-GENESIS MIDRASH RABBAH-NUMBERS MIDRASH RABBAH-EXODUS MIDRASH RABBAH-LEVITICUS MIDRASH RABBAH-DEUTERONOMY MIDRASH RABBAH-CANTICLES MIDRASH RABBAH-RUTH MIDRASH RABBAH-ESTHER MIDRASH RABBAH-LAMENTATIONS MIDRASH RABBAH-ECCLESIASTES MIDRASH TANHUMA(YELAMDENU) MIDRASH TANHUMA, edit. BUBER PESIKTA de-RAB KAHANA PESIKTA RABBATI, edit. m. FRIEDMANN MIDRASH SAMUEL (SHEMUEL) MIDRASH TEHILLIM on PSALMS (SHOHER TOV) MIDRASH MISHLE (I) on PROVERBS MIDRASH ZUTA-LAMENTATIONS TANNA debei ELIAHU Seder Eliahu Rabbah YALKUT SHIMONIPIRKEI de-RABBI ELIEZER BET ha-MIDRASCH, edit. JELLINEK MIDRASH TEMURA Back Cover
labor crafts commerce ancient israel page https publishersrow ebookshuk books jewish hebrew ebooks extensive collection anecdotal evidence relating trade thought practiced sages second temple early exilic period
eBookshuk Books

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
qwer

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

Jesus of Nazareth
asdf

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
sdf

THE BOOK OF JUDGES


Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's “spiritual Zionism” is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

History of the Jews, Vol. 6: A Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, A Chronological Table of Jewish History, An Index to the Whole Work, and Four Maps
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The sixth volume contains a memoir of the author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, a chronological table of Jewish history, an index to the whole work, and four maps.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's “spiritual Zionism” is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

THE CONCILIATOR


Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.