Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient...

Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

CHAPTERVII:VocationalTraining—MastersandApprentices241 1. Biblical and Hellenistic Periods 241; 2. Shepherd Appren-tices 241; 3. Roman Age 241; 4. Apprenticeship Agreements 242; 5. Unsuitable Applicants for Apprenticeship 243; 6. Duration of Apprenticeship 243; 7. Relationship between Master and Appren-tice 244; 8. Refusal to teach a Craft 246. Bibliography List of Abbreviations General Index Sources Hebrew Bible 280 Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha 283 New Testament 284 Hellenistic- Jewish Literature 284 Rabbinic Literature 285 251 256 258 280   Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel


About Book Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel

Front Matter Half -title page Dedication page Title page Copyright page Table of contents PrefaceContents I. Labor, Crafts and Trade in the Bible1. Sheep and Cattle Raising2. Agriculture3. Arts and Crafts4. The Medical Profession5. The Wailing Women6. Levites and Priests7. Traders and Peddlers8. Scribes9. Indolence condemnedII. Industry and Trade in the Hellenistic Age1. Ecclesiastes on Labor2. Ben Sira's Views on Labor, Commerce, and Craftsa. Idlenessb. Change of Occupationc. Commerced. Physicianse. Scribesf. Miscellaneous Occupations and Acquisition of Wisdom3. Economic Progress during the Hasmonean AgeIII. Occupational Structure of the Rabbis1. General Characteristics of the Rabbinate2. Rabbis in Agriculture and Industryi Abba Hilkiahii R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanusiii R. Eleazar ben Azariahiv R. Tarfon? R. Eleazar ben Harsom?i R. Hiyya, his Sons and R. Simeon ben Halaftavii R. Johananviii R. Simonix Abba bar Abba and his son Samuelx Rab Assixi Abayexii R. Abba bar Abina, Rab Hisda, Rab Joseph and Rabba bar Rab Huna Legal Problemsxiii Rab Hilkiah bar Tobixiv Rab Hunaxv Rab Hisdaxvi Rab Papaxvii Rab Papixviii Rab Bibi bar Abaye Problems of Ethicsxix Rab Joseph Problems of Ethicsxx Rabina Problems of Ethicsxxi Student Agriculturistsxxii R. Ishmael, son of R. Jose3. Viniculturei R. Jannaiii R. Hiyya bar Addaiii Rab Joseph4. Rabbinic Land Surveyor Rab Adda5. Woodchopper and Shepherd R. Akiba6. Animal Hire Service R. Jose of Yodkart7. Rabbis and Agricultural Laborersi R. Jose of Yodkartii R. Johanan ben Mathia8. Rabbis in Business Silk Trade and Other Commercial Activitiesi R. Johanan ben Zakkaiii R. Hiyya, R. Simeon son of Judah the Patriarch, and R. Simeon ben Halaftaiii Abba bar Abba and R. Judah ben Bathyra IIiv R. Abba? Babylonian Rabbis and Silk Merchants in Palestinevi Silk Merchants as Missionaries and Convertsvii Commercial Ethics R. Haninaviii R. Zeraix R. Abbahux Simeon ben Shetahxi Abba Shaul ben Botnith and R. Eleazar ben R. Zadokxii Commercial Ethics and Gentiles General Rabbinic Attitudexiii R. Abdima and R. Hiyya bar Joseph Unethical Business Practicesxiv Rab Hama and Rab Dimi Market Privileges for Scholarsxv Rab Sofra Business Disputesxvi R. Hiyya and R. Eleazar Bankers and Money-changersxvii Dishonest Money-Changers9. Rabbis as Schoolteachers and Educatorsi R. Hiyyaii Samuel bar Shilathiii Rabiv Levi bar Sisi10. Rabbis as Professional Preachers11. Rabbinic Scribesi Nahumii Court Scribes Ben Kararaiii R. Yeshebab the Scribeiv Nakai the Scribe? R. Ammivi Rab Hunavii Rab Aha bar Jacobviii R. Hanina the Writerix R. Meir and Rab Hananelx Income and Status of Scribes12. Rabbis as Physiciansi Relative Neglect of Medical Professionii Mar Samueliii R. Haninaiv R. Johanan? Preventive Medicine R. Hiyya, Mar Ukba, Rab Judah, R. Johanan and Rabbah bar Rab Huna13. Rabbinic Craftsmeni Construction Worker Shammaiii Carpenter R. Abiniii Needlemaker R. Joshuaiv Blacksmith R. Yitzhak Nappahav Tanner R. Josevi Sandal-maker R. Johananvii Cobblers and Tailors R. Abba bar Zemina, R. Judah the Tailor, R. Hanina and R. Oshaia14. Miscellaneous Rabbinic Occupationsi Tax-collector R. Zera's Fatherii Detectives R. Eleazar son of R. Simeon and R. Ishmael son of R. Joseiii Gladiator R. Simeon ben Lakish 15. Occupations of Early ChristiansIV. Rabbinic Attitude to Physical Labor1. Moral Value of Work2. Divine Blessings depend on Human Efforts3. Work essential for Human Dignity4. Merit of Labor more potent than Fathers' Merit5. Miracles due to Work6. Labor as Part of Divine Plan since Adam7. Abraham and Isaac Labor in the Promised Land8. Israel's Work on the Tabernacle Condition of Divine Presence 9. Six Days you shall Labor 10. Tree-Planting in the Land of Israel11. The Divine Worker The Craftsman's Pride in his Work12. Craftsmen, Scholars and Pilgrims13. Legal Privileges of Craftsmen and Laborers14. Work as a Social Necessity15. Torah and a Worldly Occupation16. Work Obligatory for Wives17. Work Essential for Prolonging Life18. Love Work 19. He who will not work, neither shall he eat20. Monotonous and Uninteresting Work not to be shunned21. Indolence Condemned22. How to find Work23. Labor honors the Worker24. Hard Work as a Cure for Colds25. Dissenting Views due to Hellenistic Influence26. Importance of Craft Skills27. Craft Skill as Social Security28. Craft Education29. Son should follow Father's Trade30. Study and Work Antidote to Sin31. Work in the Scheme of Life32. Maimonides and the Three-Hour Workday33. Equality of Laborer and Scholar34. Minimum of Study Maximum of Work35. Abandonment of Studies for Vocational Careers36. Torah Study as Exclusive or Principal Vocation37. Study and Work in Equal Proportions38. Torah and Commerce39. Higher Education for Eaters of Manna 40. Torah for Israel, Labor for Gentiles41. No Blessing in Manual Work42. Dislike of Economic Activity due to Self-Sacrifice for Torah43. Prosperous and Poverty-stricken Students44. Want and Destitution for the Sake of Learning45. Martyrdom on the Altar of TorahV. The Occupational Structure of the Jews in the Talmudic Age 1. Agriculture2. Buildingi Temple Buildersii Stone masonsiii Major Building Organization iv Building Laborers? Decline of Building Industry3. Textile Industry4. Pottery5. Glass Industry6. Metal Industry and Arms Manufacture7. Marketing and Trading Activities8. Commercial Ethics Price Control9. Private Enterprise Legal Problems10. Jewish Occupations in the Roman-Hellenistic Diasporai Alexandriaii Cyreneiii Minor Diaspora Communitiesiv RomeVI. Recommended and Undesirable Trades1. Clean and Easy Crafts2. Commerce and Business Education3. Trading in Sacred Commodities4. Bookkeeping and Accountancy5. Agriculturei Social and Economic Importanceii Agricultural Laborersiii Tenant Farmersiv Landless Ikkarim? Fixed-Term Laborersvi Intensive Agriculture Galileevii Slavesviii Serfsix The Am Ha'ares Disadvantages of Agriculturex Agricultural Counseling xi Olive-Growingxii Horticulture6. Sheep and Goat Breeding7. Medicinei The Physicianii Pagan Physiciansiii Judaeo-Christian Faith-Healers iv Talmudic Medicine? Medical Equipment8. Morally Undesirable Trades General9. Bloodletting 10. Prison Administration11. Peddling12. Tanners13. Weavers14. Artistic Weavers15. Launderers16. Transport Workers Ass-Drivers and Camel-Drivers17. Herdsmen and Shepherds18. Storekeepers19. Sailors20. Ritual Slaughterers and Butchers21. Hunters22. FishermenVII. Vocational Training Masters and Apprentices1. Biblical and Hellenistic Periods2. Shepherd Apprentices3. Roman Age4. Apprenticeship Agreements5. Unsuitable Applicants for Apprenticeship6. Duration of Apprenticeship7. Relationship between Master and Apprentice8. Refusal to Teach a Crafti Temple Craftsmenii PhysiciansBack Matter Bibliographya. Primary Sourcesb. Modern LiteratureList of AbbreviationsGeneral IndexSourcesHEBREW BIBLEGENESISEXODUSLEVITICUSNUMBERSDEUTERONOMYJOSHUAJUDGESI SAMUELII SAMUELI KINGSII KINGSISAIAHJEREMIAHEZEKIELHOSEAAMOSMICAHNAHUMHAGGAIZECHARIAHMALACHIPSALMSPROVERBSCANTICLESLAMENTATIONSESTHERECCLESIASTESDANIELEZRANEHEMIAHI CHRONICLESII CHRONICLESAPOCRYPHA and PSEUDEPIGRAPHAECCLESIASTICUS(BEN SIRA)I MACCABEESTOBITTHE LETTER OF ARISTEASTHE SYRIAC APOCALYPSE OF BARUCHNEW TESTAMENTMATTHEWMARKLUKEJOHNACTSI CORINTHIANSCOLOSSIANSII THESSALONIANSHELLENISTIC-JEWISH LITERATUREPHILOIn FlaccumJOSEPHUS-THE JEWISH WAR (BELLUM IUDAICUM) JOSEPHUS-THE ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS JOSEPHUS-I APION JOSEPHUS-THE LIFE (VITA) RABBINIC LITERATUREMISHNAHBERAKHOTHPEAHDEMAIKILAYIMSHEBIITHMAASROTHBIKKURIMSHABB????RUBINPESAHIMSHEKALIMYOMASUKKAHBEZAHROSH HASHANATAANITH?OED ???ANKETUBOTHNEDARIMGITTINKIDDUSHI?BABA ????ABABA METSIABABA BATHRASANHEDRINEDUYOTHABODAH ZARAHABOTHMENAHOTHBEKHOROTHMIDDOTHKELIMNIDDAHMAKSHIRINZABIMTOSEFTABERAKHOTHPEAHDEMAIMAASER RISHONBIKKURIMSHABB????RUBINPESAHIMYOM HA-KIPPURIMBABA KAMMAMENAHOTHSUKKAHYOM TOBBABA METSIABEKHOROTHARAKHINMEGILLAHYEBAMOTHKETUBOTHKELIM-BABA METSIA NAZIRSOTAHGITTINKIDDUSHINBABA BATHRASANHEDRINEDUYOTHABODAH ZARAHKELIM-BABA BATHRA OHOLOTHNIDDAHHALAKHIC MIDRASHIMMEKHILTA de-RABBI YISHMAEL MEKHILTA de-RABBI SIMEON, edit. EPSTEIN SIFRA (TORATH KOHANIM) SIFRE(I)-NUMBERS SIFRE(I)-DEUTERONOMY TALMUD YERUSHALMIBERAKHOTHSHEBIITHTERUMOTH?RUBINPEAHMAASROTHPESAHIMBIKKURIMDEMAIKILAYIMSHABB???SHEKALIMYOMAYEBAMOTHBABA KAMMASUKKAHKETUBOTHBABA METSIABEZAHNEDARIMROSH HASHANAHNAZIRBABA BATHRATAANITHSOTAHSANHEDRINMEGILLAHGITTINABODAH ZARAHMOED ???ANKIDDUSHINNIDDAHHAGIGAHTALMUD BABLIBERAKHOTHBEZAH?RUBI?PESAHIMROSH HASHANAHTAANITHSHABB???MEGILLAHYOMASUKKAHMOED ???ANHAGIGAHYEBAMOTHGITTINKETUBOTHBABA METSIAKIDDUSHI?NEDARIMNAZIRSOTAHBABA KAMMABABA BATHRAMAKKOTHHULLINSHEBUOTHABODAH ZARAHBEKHOROTHSANHEDRINARAKHINHORAYOTHZEBAHIMMENAHOTHTEMURAHNIDDAHMINOR TRACTATESABOTH de-RABBI NATHAN-VERSION I ABOTH de-RABBI NATHAN-VERSION II DEREKH ERETZ ZUTA AGGADIC MIDRASHIMMIDRASH RABBAH-GENESIS MIDRASH RABBAH-NUMBERS MIDRASH RABBAH-EXODUS MIDRASH RABBAH-LEVITICUS MIDRASH RABBAH-DEUTERONOMY MIDRASH RABBAH-CANTICLES MIDRASH RABBAH-RUTH MIDRASH RABBAH-ESTHER MIDRASH RABBAH-LAMENTATIONS MIDRASH RABBAH-ECCLESIASTES MIDRASH TANHUMA(YELAMDENU) MIDRASH TANHUMA, edit. BUBER PESIKTA de-RAB KAHANA PESIKTA RABBATI, edit. m. FRIEDMANN MIDRASH SAMUEL (SHEMUEL) MIDRASH TEHILLIM on PSALMS (SHOHER TOV) MIDRASH MISHLE (I) on PROVERBS MIDRASH ZUTA-LAMENTATIONS TANNA debei ELIAHU Seder Eliahu Rabbah YALKUT SHIMONIPIRKEI de-RABBI ELIEZER BET ha-MIDRASCH, edit. JELLINEK MIDRASH TEMURA Back Cover
labor crafts commerce ancient israel page https publishersrow ebookshuk books jewish hebrew ebooks extensive collection anecdotal evidence relating trade thought practiced sages second temple early exilic period
eBookshuk Books

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Mishnayoth


Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
qerer

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrumentand on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Complete and Unabridged Electronic Edition)
This is the complete and unabridged electronic edition of the twentieth century finest and most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student of the Hebrew Scriptures.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
sdfg

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

( )
.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's spiritual Zionism is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

The Sephardi Legacy II


A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
asdf

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah, 12 vols.
The most important work of the 20th century giant of Talmudic scholarship.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.