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MOISES ORFALI precedence

editor MOISES משה ORFALI אורפלי
MOISES ORFALI precedence over any other consideration. Thus, in contrast to the Jewish Agency, which opposed the issue of fictitiou marriages, the chief rabbinate confirme the marriages and smoothed the way to obtaining divorce. His religious and halakhic commitment to prioritizing the rescue of outstanding scholars led to his working independently to save the World Mizrachi Movement, sometimes even to the displeasure of the Jewish Agency. Most of his efforts were in vain. The second section, “ Political Crises”, opens with the article by Myriam Greilsammer proving that the Crusader king of Jerusalem, Aimery de Lusignan, composed a treatise of law, the Livre au Roi, in around 1200, in order to use it as a weapon against the great barons of the Crusader kingdom — who constituted a threat to his rule. Aimery wanted to provide the kingdom with the legal measures necessary to combat the betrayals and crimes of his vassals, and to punish them in such a way as to weaken their power. His aspiration was to re- create, with the aid of these laws, the period when the throne was supreme and the vassals obeyed it without question. King Aimery seized the opportunity in 1187 to benefi from the kingdom’s loss of the officia legal code. This reality made it possible for him to create a legal compilation that would serve his political objectives and provide him with a legal basis to reinforce the strength of the monarchy. This analysis, of how King Aimery used the Livre au Roi to reinforce his power as the overlord ( suzerenus) and king, strengthens the conclusions of researchers who have maintained that, despite the disaster of the Battle of Hattin, the Crusaders’ kingdom was still strong at the beginning of the thirteenth century. We see, therefore, that in certain circumstances a crisis can have a positive influence acting as an incentive for the production of new and creative solutions, as was the case with King Aimery. Ilan Rachum discusses the phenomenon of the caudillo, the powerful leadership figur that emerged in most of the Latin American countries ( except for Brazil) shortly after their achievement of independence at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Rahum examines the social system of the time, which had not changed much from that prevalent in the colonial era that preceded the rise of the caudillismo. He then presents the trends and polarised political groups ( conservatives versus liberals) that made the chances of maintaining a stable constitutional regime even less likely. In addition, Rahum provides rough sketches of the personalities of such outstanding caudillos as Santa Ana in Mexico, Pa ´ ez in Venezuela or Rosas in Argentina. The author provides additional examples of other caudillos from the second half of the nineteenth century, such as Mariano Melgarejo in Bolivia, Garcץ ´ a Moreno in Ecuador and Antonio Guzma ´ n in Venezuela. Finally, there are cases from the twentieth 10 CHAPTER HOME  | TOC

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MOISES ORFALI precedence over any other consideration. Thus, in contrast to the Jewish Agency, which opposed the issue of fictitiou marriages, the chief rabbinate confirme the marriages and smoothed the way to obtaining divorce. His religious and halakhic commitment to prioritizing the rescue of outstanding scholars led to his working independently to save the World Mizrachi Movement, sometimes even to the displeasure of the Jewish Agency. Most of his efforts were in vain. The second section, “ Political Crises”, opens with the article by Myriam Greilsammer proving that the Crusader king of Jerusalem, Aimery de Lusignan, composed a treatise of law, the Livre au Roi, in around 1200, in order to use it as a weapon against the great barons of the Crusader kingdom — who constituted a threat to his rule. Aimery wanted to provide the kingdom with the legal measures necessary to combat the betrayals and crimes of his vassals, and to punish them in such a way as to weaken their power. His aspiration was to re- create, with the aid of these laws, the period when the throne was supreme and the vassals obeyed it without question. King Aimery seized the opportunity in 1187 to benefi from the kingdom’s loss of the officia legal code. This reality made it possible for him to create a legal compilation that would serve his political objectives and provide him with a legal basis to reinforce the strength of the monarchy. This analysis, of how King Aimery used the Livre au Roi to reinforce his power as the overlord ( suzerenus) and king, strengthens the conclusions of researchers who have maintained that, despite the disaster of the Battle of Hattin, the Crusaders’ kingdom was still strong at the beginning of the thirteenth century. We see, therefore, that in certain circumstances a crisis can have a positive influence acting as an incentive for the production of new and creative solutions, as was the case with King Aimery. Ilan Rachum discusses the phenomenon of the caudillo, the powerful leadership figur that emerged in most of the Latin American countries ( except for Brazil) shortly after their achievement of independence at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Rahum examines the social system of the time, which had not changed much from that prevalent in the colonial era that preceded the rise of the caudillismo. He then presents the trends and polarised political groups ( conservatives versus liberals) that made the chances of maintaining a stable constitutional regime even less likely. In addition, Rahum provides rough sketches of the personalities of such outstanding caudillos as Santa Ana in Mexico, Pa ´ ez in Venezuela or Rosas in Argentina. The author provides additional examples of other caudillos from the second half of the nineteenth century, such as Mariano Melgarejo in Bolivia, Garcץ ´ a Moreno in Ecuador and Antonio Guzma ´ n in Venezuela. Finally, there are cases from the twentieth 10 << CHAPTER >> HOME | TOC
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