Varda Books



 View book pages:
 Buy this book:
  eBookshuk
  




Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.

by Alexander Gendler

Bibliographic information

TitleKhurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.
AuthorAlexander Gendler
PublisherVarda Books
Publication Date2019
SubjectThe beginning of the Holocaust.
Pages363


Description 

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and opening of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish archives, the genocide of the Jewish people committed by the Russian Imperial Army during World War I is increasingly becoming a topic of books and scholarly research. The appreciation that this purposeful destruction was the prelude to the Holocaust is slowly but surely entering today's scholarship as well. This book, the first in a projected series of books on the Khurbm by the Center for Jewish Life Studies, makes available to English readers a collection of the most important eyewitness testimonies which have reached us, as well as reports and documents depicting anti-Jewish atrocities committed by the Russian Imperial Army during what many still call the Great War, specifically during 1914–1915.



About the Author 

Alexander Gendler ---

Alexander Gendler, a former NPR “Morning Edition” commentator, syndicated columnist, and a contributing writer to the New York Times Op-Ed page, is the Editor-in-Chief of the Forgotten Genocide project https://www.forgottengenocide.org which is sponsored by The Center for Jewish Life Studies.




Contents 

Contents Illustrations.............................................vi Maps Russian Poland 1914...........................ii Massacres and Pogroms.....................vii May 5, 1915 Tragedy...........................x Preface.....................................................xi Acknowledgments...................................xv Introduction...........................................,..1 1. Expulsions.............................................5 2. Hostage-Taking....................................51 3. Pogroms...............................................69 Appendix : Documents and Army Orders of Persecution......................119 Index.....................................................329


Excerpt 

From Introduction: At the start of World War I, Tsar Nicholas II issued his “Temporary Rules Regarding the Field Command,” which dramatically expanded the rights and privileges of the Russian Army over the civilian population in the areas where the army was positioned. The Tsar appointed Grand Prince Nikolai Nikolayevich Romanov, his uncle, whom he didn't particularly get along with, as the army's Supreme Commander- in-Chief. While most of the Russian Imperial Army's officers and generals suffered from malignant forms of antisemitic disease, it was General Nikolai Yanushkevich, the Chief of the General Staff (Stavka) of the Russian Imperial Army, whose obsession with the Jews reached the point of sickening sadism, who propelled the virulent hostility of the Tsar's army toward the almost six million Jews of Russia. It was Yanushkevich's intimate relationship with the Tsar that was the true source of his power within the army. Unable to criticize the Tsar himself, the members of the Russian civilian government, which at this point had lost much of its power as a result of changes, vented their anger—which Tsar Nicholas II fully deserved—against Yanushkevich. “Russia seems to be inevitably headed toward tragedy,” declared A. V. Krivoshein, the Minister of Agriculture and one of the most influential people in the Russian government. “Sometimes it feels like you are inside of a madhouse.” Agreeing with him, the other ministers described Yanushkevich as not only naive but also as “unforgivably stupid,” one who imagines himself as an unrecognized genius. “In him,” his critics said, “unlimited autocracy has now been combined with unlimited irresponsibility. According to him, it is always someone else's fault. He is alien to the Russian people, and his initiatives are the result of shameless moral degradation.” However, it was the Stavka's orders of civilian deportations from the areas along the front line that produced the most intense anger. According to that same A. V. Krivoshein, “Curses, diseases, horrors, and poverty are being spread throughout all of Russia; the hungry and dirty deportees saw panic and fear everywhere extinguishing the last flame of the popular enthusiasm for war that existed at the beginning.” In horror, many civilian officials of the Russian government had observed the systematic, diabolical persecution of the Jews. More than once in writing and during meetings in person, some of its ministers implored the Supreme Commander-in-Chief and General Yanushkevich to stop this disastrous policy. “Even vile antisemites visited the members of Government with protestations and complaints regarding the army's disgusting attitude toward Jews at the front,” show the notes11 from the Council of Ministers meetings. Nothing, however, had any effect.


Reviews 

A sweeping collection of eye-witness testimonies and official documents in English translation that chronicle the now largely forgotten anti-Jewish war crimes committed by the Russian Imperial Army during the First World War.


--- Prof. Eugene M. Avrutin, University of Illinois
Author of The Velizh Affair: Blood Libel in a Russian Town. (Oxford University Press: 2017)



An extremely important collection of sources available for the first time in English translation that document the persecution of Jews in First World War Russia.


--- Polly Zavadivker, Director, Jewish Studies Program, University of Delaware
Author of 1915. Diary of S. An-sky. (Indiana University Press, 2016)



The work of serious scholarship which raises difficult questions about special conditions in Eastern Europe that fermented there the genocidal anti-Semitism. By placing the Holocaust in a wider historical framework, it enhances our understanding of its roots.


--- Kiril Feferman, Director of Holocaust History Center at the Ariel University, Israel
Author of The Holocaust in the Crimea and the North Caucasus. (Jerusalem, Yad Vashem: 2016)



“A timely reminder that the thrust of 20th century anti-Jewish exterminatory violence did not begin with Hitler. Contemporaneous with an emergent Armenian genocide, in 1914-15, Russia's military chiefs sought to ethnically cleanse the historic Ashkenazi heartlands. Khurbm presents vivid chapter and verse on this largely forgotten prelude to European Jewry's destruction a world war later.”


--- Mark Levene, Emeritus Fellow in History at the University of Southampton
Author of The Crisis of Genocide, vols. 1 & 2 (New York, Oxford University Press, 2016)



"This book is essential reading for all those interested in the history of the pogroms and anti-Jewish violence, between 1914 and 1922."


--- Grzegorz Rossoliński-Liebe
Freie Universität Berlin






 Already viewed books:
Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.


TANAKH - INTERACTIVE HEBREW BIBLE