Jewish Influence on Christian Reform...

This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

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Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements


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FRONT MATTERTitle PageCopyright PageNoteDedication PagePrefaceTable of ContentsBook IBook IIBook IIIBook IVIndicesBOOK I. THE SOURCES, CONTENT AND SCOPE OF JEWISH INFLUENCE1. The Use of The Term ''Judaizing''2. Why the Term Judaizing is Useda. Judaizing an Epithet of Reproachb. Judaizing a Term For Jewish Influence 3. The Jewish Element in Christianity4. Types of Jewish Influence 5. The Content of Jewish Influencea. The Jewish Literary Tradition; The Old Testamentb. The Influence Of The Jewish People In The Diaspora1. Jews in Contact with their Environment2. Explanations of Jewish Survival3. Jews as a Social and Political Influence4. Jews as Cultural Intermediaries6. The Transmission of the Content of the Jewish Tradition to the Christian Worlda. Christian Study of Hebrew and Judaizing b. Motives to the Christian Study of Hebrewc. Jewish Teachers of Christian Hebraists1. Jewish Instructors of the Church Fathers2. Hebrew Learning After the Church Fathers3. The Carolingian Renaissance4. The Centures of the Heresiesd. Jewish Elements in Christian Philosophy1. Jewish Influence in Pre-Medieval Christian Philosophy2. Jewish Factors in Medieval Thought3. Philosophers of the Renaissance and Modern Times7. The Scope of Jewish Influence in ChristendomBOOK II. JEWISH INFLUENCE ON THE HERESIES OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIESI. Introduction.1. The Rise of Heresy During the Eleventh Century2. The Major Heretical Groups3. Purpose of This StudyII. Jewish Influence on the Catharist Heresy1. Jewish Factors in the Rise of Heresy in Languendoca. Culture and Skepticism in Provenceb. Jews and Liberalism in Provencec. Jewish Prosperity and the Rise of Heresyd. Relationship between Albigensians and Jewse. Jewish Officials at Albigensian Courts; Heretic Princes and Jewish Patrons1. John of Soissons2. William VIII, Lord of Montpellier3. Pro-Jewish Princes of Languedocf. Leaders in the Albigensian Crusade and Their Relations with Jews1. Philip Augustus2. Pedro of Aragon3. Simon de Montfort4. Arnold of Citeauxg. The Situation of Provencal Jewry After the Albigensian Crusade2. Catharist Theology and Judaisma. The Anti-Judaic Aspect of Catharism1. The Anti-Judaizing Gnostics and Manicheans2. The Anti-Judaic System of Catharism3. Groups Opposing Jewish Influence and Books4. Importance of Anti-Judaism in Catharismb. The Pro-Judaic Aspect of Catharist Doctrine 1. Catharist and Jewish Dualism2. Kabbalah and Catharism3. The Kabbalah in Medieval Christendom3. Catharist Practices and Their Jewish Associationsa. The Influence of Jewish Physicians1. Among Heretics2. In Orthodox Circlesb. The Practice of Money-Lending1. Medieval Heretics as Money-Lenders2. Usury as a Heresy3. The Lombards and Caorsins4. The Role of the Jew in the Development of Finance5. Usury as a Subject of Polemical Debate6. Conversions and the Practice of UsuryIII. Jewish Influence on the Pro-Biblical and Waldensian Heresies1. Biblical Movements in Southern France2. The Petrobrussians3. Lambert of Begue4. The Insabbatati5. Peter Waldo6. The Waldensian Bible7. Waldensian Biblical Commentaries and Literature8. Waldensian Doctrine Concerning Scripture9. The Scriptural Canon of the Waldensians10. Waldensian Principles of Exegesis11. Judaic Aspects of Waldensian Theologya. Waldensian Opposition to Image-Worshipb. Invocation of Saints; Purgatory; Oathsc. Waldensian Identity with Ancient Israel 12. Personal Associations of Jews and Waldensians IV. The Passagii1. The Rise of Heresy in Lombardya. Background for Heresy in Lombardyb. Position of the Lombard Jewsc. Judaizing Before the Rise of Heresyd. Old Testament Elements in the Theocracy at Milane. Girard of Montfort and the Rise of Heresyf. John The Jew ; the Catharist Bishopg. The Jewish Issue in the Papal Schism of 11301. The House of Pierleoni2. Anacletus, the Jewish Pope 3. The Schism of 1130 and Contemporary Jewry4. The Fate of the Pierleoni Family5. The Anacletan Schism and the Rise of Heresy2. The Passagiia. Doctrines of the Passagii1. Concerning the Mosaic Law2. Concerning the Sabbath3. Concerning the Dietary Laws4. Concerning Circumcision5. Concerning Sacrifices6. Concerning the New Testament7. Concerning Jesus8. Opposition to the Churchb. Scene of Passagian Activityc. Date of the Passagiid. Derivation of the Name: Passagii 1. From the Greek: All-holy 2. From Vagabonds 3. From Pass-Dwellers 4. From: Passagium, a Crusade 5. From an Italian Town6. From Tax Gatherers 7. From: Passover-observers e. Did the Passagii Know Hebrew? f. Classification of the Passagii1. In Relation to Waldensians and Catharists2. A Local Jewish-Christian Sectg. Summary of Conclusions on the Passagii3. Frederic II and His Relation to Jews and Hereticsa. Frederic Anti-Jewish Enactmentsb. Frederic's Opposition to Heresyc. Frederic as a Free-Thinkerd. Frederic and the Saracense. Frederic and His Jewish Friends4. AppendixV. Judaizers Under the Inquisition1. The Legal Relationship of Judaism and Heresya. The Oath of a Heretic and a Jew2. The Definition of Church Jurisdiction Over Jews and Judaism Through the Inquisitiona. The Dominicans and Franciscans3. Establishment of the Inquisition4. The Death Penalty in Relation to the Old and New Testaments5. The Jewish Problems of the Inquisition: the Four Special Problemsa. Jewish Aid to Heretics1. Jews Furnish Refuge to Heretics2. Heretics and Jews Expelled Together3. The Execution of Arnold of Bonn near the Jewish Cemetery in Cologneb. Suppression by the Inquisition of Jewish Literary Influence1. Censorship of Jewish Books2. Protection agaist Jewish Polemicsc. Jewish Relapsy and the Inquisition1. Christian Missionary Efforts Among Jews2. Methods of Conversion; the Christian Attitude3. Jewish Attitude Towards Converts4. Christian Efforts to Prevent Relapse5. Influence of Relapsi Upon Christian Thoughtd. Jewish Proselytism and the Heresies1. Material on Jewish Proselytism2. Jewish Attitude Towards Proselytism3. Sources of Jewish Proselytes4. AppendixBOOK III. JEWISH INFLUENCE ON SOME PRE-REFORMATION AND REFORMATION MOVEMENTSI. Jewish Aspects of the Hussite Reformation1. Jewish Associations of Hussite Precursors2. John Huss as a Judaizer 3. Huss as a Biblical Student4. Huss as a Hebraist5. Old Testament and Jewish Elemens in Huss' Theology6. Huss' Sense of Identity with Old Testament Chracters7. The Taborites, Huss' Followers, and the Old Testament8. Jews and the Hussite WarsII. Jewish Aspects of the Zwingli Reformation1. Two Important Causes of the Zurich Reformation2. Zwingli and the Biblea. Zwingli's Attitude Towards the Vulgateb. Zwingli and the Septuagint3. Zwingli as a Hebraista. Zwingli's Hebraist Colleaguesb. Hebraist Opponents of Zwinglic. The Scope of Zwingli's Hebrew Scholarshipd. Zwingli's Attitude Towards Hebrewe. Hebrew in Zwingli's New Testament Commentaries4. Zwingli as Old Testament Translator and Commentatora. Zwingli's Commentary on Genesisb. Commentary on Exodusc. Commentary on the Psalmsd. Commentary and Translation of Isaiahe. Zwingli's Commentary on Jeremiahf. Hebrew Text Used by Zwingli5. Zwingli and the Kabbalah6. Zwingli and the Reuchlin Affair7. Zwingli and Servetus8. Judaic Elements in Zwingli's Theologya. His Attitude Toward the Old Testamentb. Zwingli's Attitude Toward Jews and Their Electionc. Zwingli's Protest Against Old Testament Ritualism d. Zwingli's Judaic Protest Against Imagese. Zwingli and the Old Testament Theocracyf. Zwingli's Views on the Nature of Christ; His Association with Moses of Winterthur9. Hebraic Aspects of the Zwinglian Movements After the Death of Zwinglia. Zwingli's Hebraist Friends and Successorsb. The Zurich Bible Translation; Leo Judahc. Influence of the Zwinglian Movement Outside Zurichd. Zwingli's Family; ConclusionIII. Michael Servetus, The Anti-Trinitarian Judaizer1. Introduction2. Jewish Elements in Servetus' Early Careera. His Alleged Jewish Birthb. Jewish Influence in His Early Environment1. Servetus' Early Instructors2. Servetus at Saragossa and Toulouse3. In the Cortege of Juan Quintanac. Concerning Trinitarian Errors; 1531d. Servetus at Paris, Avignon and Lyonse. Servetus as Geographer; 1535f. Servetus as Physiciang. Servetus at Charlieu; His Baptism3. Servetus as Old Testament and Hebrew Studenta. Servetus at Vienne; His Biblical Annotations to the Pagninus Bible1. His Affection for Bible Studies2. His Exegetical Interpretationb. Hebrew Knowledge of Servetus1. Hebrew in Exegesis2. Hebrew and Servetus' Literary Stylec. Exegetical Method of Servetus1. Servetus' Indebtedness to Rabbinical Exegesis2. Paul of Burgos and Servetus3. David Kimchi and Servetusd. Opposition Aroused by the Pagninus Editiion4. Servetus as a Student of Rabbinical Literature: The Christianismi Restitutio; 1553a. Influence of Polemical Works on Servetus1. Paul of Burgos2. Other Jewish Converts3. Nicholas of Lyra4. Profiat Duranb. Quotations by Servetus from the Targumc. Quotations in Servetus from Midrashic Sourcesd. Quotation from Maimonidese. Jewish Commentators Quoted by Servetus1. Baal Nizaon f. Servetus and the Kabbalah5. The Judaic Elements in Servetus' Theologya. The Trial of Servetus at Vienneb. The Trial and Condemnation of Servetus at Geneva1. The Charges Against Servetus2. Servetus' Judaizing on the Trinity3. Servetus Versus Papal Judaizing 4. Servetus and Calvin's Judaic Persecution; Servetus' Deathc. Calvin and Judaism After Servetus' Deathd. ConclusionBOOK IV. BRIEFER STUDIESI. The Jewish Role in the Iconoclastic Controversy II. Martin Luther's Debt to Jews and Judaism1. The Accusation of Judaizing by the Papists2. Luther's Use of the Judaizing Accusation3. Luther's Endeavour to Convert the Jews4. Luther and the Judaizing Sabbatarians5. Jewish Literary Influence on Luthera. Luther's Interest in Hebrew, the Kabbalah and the Rabbisb. Luther and Contemporary Jewish Converts6. Luther's Influence Upon the Jewsa. Luther and the Jewish Reformation III. Hebraic Aspects of American Puritanism1. The Old Testament Influence in England2. The Old Testament in Early America3. Hebrew Knowledge Among the First Settlers4. Mosaic Influence on American Puritan Legislation; The Law of Nature and The Law of God 5. Pilgrim Laws and the Jewish Scriptures6. John Cotton and Massachusetts Mosaism a. The Body of Liberties;'' Mosaic versus Common Law7. Hebraic Legislation in Connecticut8. New Haven; Mosaism at Its Height9. New Jersey10. John Eliot, Governor Winthrop and Roger Williams11. Bibliography (Selected)INDICESI. GENERAL INDEXII. INDEX OF HEBREW BOOKS AND TERMS
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