JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus Page 1...

Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

In the last century, a new way of looking at the Bible developed. Research into the ancient Near East and its texts recreated for us the civilizations out of which the Bible emerged. In this century, there has been a revival of Jewish biblical scholarship; Israeli and American scholars, in particular, concentrating in the fields of archaeology, biblical history, Semitic languages, and the religion of Israel, have opened exciting new vistas into the world of the Scriptures. For the first time in history, we have at our disposal information and method-ological tools that enable us to explore the biblical text in a way that could never have been done before. This new world of knowledge, as seen through the eyes of contemporary Jewish scholars and utilizing at the same time the insights of over twenty centuries of tra-ditional Jewish exegesis, is now available for the first time to a general audience in The JPS Torah Commentary. The Commentary is published in five volumes, each by a single author who has devoted himself to the study of the text. Given the wide range of perspectives that now exist in biblical scholarship, the JPS has recognized the individual expertise of these authors and made no at-tempt to impose uniformity on the methodology or content of their work. The Hebrew text is that of the Leningrad Codex B 19A, the oldest dated manuscript of the complete Hebrew Bible. Copied from a text written by the distinguished Masoretic scholar Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, who lived in the first half of the 10th century C. E., the manuscript was completed in 1009 C. E. In this edition it has been arranged according to the weekly synagogue Torah readings. The format has been adjusted to correspond to that adopted by the TANAKH, the new translation of the Hebrew Bible, published by the Jewish Publication Society and utilized in the present Commentary. The Jewish Publication Society has completed this project with a full awareness of the great tradition of Jewish Bible commentary, with a profound sense of the sanctity of the biblical text and an understanding of the awe and love that our people has accorded its Bible. The voice of our new Commentary resounds with the spirit and concerns of our times— just as the Jewish spirit has always found its most sincere and heartfelt expression in its appreciation of the Bible; yet it acknowledges the intrinsic value of the tools of mod-ern scholarship in helping to establish the original sense and setting of Scripture. With all this fixed firmly in mind, the Jewish Publication Society commits its good name and its decades of pioneering in the world of English- language Jewish publishing to this Torah Commentary with the hope that it will serve as the contemporary addition to the classic commentaries created by Jews during past epochs in Jewish history. Nahum M. Sarna, G E N E R A L E D I T O R Chaim Potok, L I T E R A R Y E D I T O R

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus


About Book JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus

FRONT MATTERTitle PagePatrons PageDedication PageCopyright PageAcknowledgmentsContentsIntroductionGlossaryAbbreviationsWEEKLY READINGSVa-yikra'TsavSheminiTazria‘Metsora'Aharei MotKedoshimEmorBe-harBe-hukkotaiTHE COMMENTARY TO LEVITICUSThe Principal Types of Sacrifice (1:1-7:38)The Burnt Offering ('Olah) (vv. 1-17)The Grain Offering (Minhah) (vv. 1-16)The Sacred Gift of Greeting (Zevah Shelamim) (vv.1-17)The Expiatory Sacrifices (4:1-5:26)Forms of the Hatta't SacrificeAdditional Means of Expiation (vv. 1-13)Uses of the 'Asham Sacrifice (vv. 14-26)The Disposition of Sacrifices (6:1-7:38)The Burnt Offering ('Olah) (vv.1-6)The Grain Offering (Minhah) (vv. 7-11)The Sin Offering (Hatta't) (6:17-23)The Guilt Offering ('Asham) (vv. 1-10)The Sacred Gift of Greeting (Zevah Ha-Shelamim) (7:11-34)Summary (7:35-38)The Initiation of Formal Worship (Chaps. 8-9)The Consecration of Priests and Tabernacle (vv. 1-36)The First Celebration of Sacrifice (vv.1-24)Admonitions on Priestly ConductThe Death of Nadab and Abihu: a Dramatic Precedent (vv. 1-7)Rules for the Priesthood (vv. 8-15)Moses Monitors the Priests and the Cult (vv. 16-20)The Laws of Kashrut: Proper Foods and VesselsThe Dietary Laws: Two CollectionsPermitted and Forbidden Food Sources (vv. 1-23)Postscript (vv. 46-47)Regulations Concerning the New MotherThe Purification of Scin Diseases (13:1-14:57) The Symptomatology (vv. 1-8)Chronic Ailments (vv. 9-17)Tsara'at as a Complication (vv. 18-46)Tsara'at in Fabrics and Leather (vv. 47-59)Purification Rites for Individuals (vv. 1-32)Tsara'at in Building Stones (vv. 33-53)Discharges from Sexual OrgansThe Israelite Male (vv. 1-18)The Israelite Female (vv. 19-30)Conclusions (vv. 31-33)The Yom Kippur RitualPreparations for Purification (vv. 3-10)The Purification of the Sanctuary (vv. 11-19) The Dispatch of the Scapegoat (vv. 20-22)Rites Subsequent to the Dispatch of the Scapegoat (vv. 23-28)Designation of an Annual Atonement Day (vv. 29-34)The Pursuit of Holiness (17:1-26:46)Prologue: Proper Forms of Worship (vv. 1-16)Definition of the FamilyThe Laws of HolinessThe Family in Religious ContextForbidden Sexual Unions (vv. 8-21)Possesion of the Land (vv. 21-27)Laws Governing the Priesthood (21:1-22:33)Restrictions and Limitations (vv. 1-24)Sacred Donations (vv. 1-33)The Calendar of Sacred TimeThe Sabbath (vv. 1-3)The Feast of Unleavened Bread (vv.4-8)Offerings from the New Grain Crop (vv. 9-14)The Shavuot Festival (vv. 15-22)The First Day of the Seventh Month (vv.23-25)Day of Atonement (vv. 26-32)The Sukkot Festival (vv. 33-44)A Collection of LawsThe Kindling of the Menorah (vv. 1-4)The Rows of Bread (vv. 5-9)Laws Governing Blasphemy and Othe Serious Crimes (vv. 10-22)The Principles of Land Tenure (25:1-26:2)The Sabbatical Year and the Jubilee (25:1-23)Additional Laws Regarding Land Tenure and Indenture (25:24-55)Epilogue to the Holiness Code (26:3-46)The Blessing (vv. 3-13)The Execration (vv. 14-45)Postscript (v.46)Funding the SanctuaryVotary Pleges in Fixed Amounts of Silver (vv. 1-8)Votary Pleges of Animals (vv. 9-13)Consecrations (vv. 14-25)Firstlings (vv. 26-27)Proscribed Property (vv. 28-29)Tithes ( vv. 30-33)The Postscript (v. 34)NOTES TO THE COMMENTARYLEVITICUS IN THE ONGOING JEWISH TRADITIONFrom Sacrifice to Alternative Forms of WorshipThe Centralized CultPost-Temple JudaismWorship and CelebrationConclusionNotes to Leviticus in the Ongoing Jewish TraditionEXCURSUSESExcursus 1. That Person Shall Be Cut Off (chap. 7)Excursus 2. The Meaning of the Dietary Laws (chap. 11)Excursus 3. The New Mother (chap. 12)Excursus 4. The Scapegoat Ritual (chap. 16)Excursus 5. Family in Biblical Israel (chap. 18)Excursus 6. Biblical Concept of Holiness (chap. 19)Excursus 7. The Cult of Molech in Biblical Israel (chap. 20)Excursus 8. The Development of the Biblical Festivals (chap. 23)Excursus 9. Retaliation and Compensation in Biblical Criminal Law (chap. 24)Excursus 10. The Inalienable Right to the Land of Israel (chap. 25)Excursus 11. A Priestly Statement on the Destiny of Israel (26:3-46)Notes to the ExcursusesExcursus 1Excursus 2Excursus 3Excursus 4Excursus 5Excursus 6Excursus 7Excursus 8Excursus 9Excursus 10Excursus 11
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