JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus Page 2...

Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

In the last century, a new way of looking at the Bible developed. Research into the ancient Near East and its texts recreated for us the civilizations out of which the Bible emerged. In this century, there has been a revival of Jewish biblical scholarship; Israeli and American scholars, in particular, concentrating in the fields of archaeology, biblical history, Semitic languages, and the religion of Israel, have opened exciting new vistas into the world of the Scriptures. For the first time in history, we have at our disposal information and method-ological tools that enable us to explore the biblical text in a way that could never have been done before. This new world of knowledge, as seen through the eyes of contemporary Jew-ish scholars and utilizing at the same time the insights of over twenty centuries of tradi-tional Jewish exegesis, is now available for the first time to a general audience in The JPS Torah Commentary. The Commentary is published in five volumes, each by a single author who has devoted himself to the study of the text. Given the wide range of perspectives that now exist in bibli-cal scholarship, the JPS has recognized the individual expertise of these authors and made no attempt to impose uniformity on the methodology or content of their work. The Hebrew text is that of the Leningrad Codex B 19A, the oldest dated manuscript of the complete Hebrew Bible. Copied from a text written by the distinguished Masoretic scholar Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, who lived in the first half of the 10th century C. E., the manuscript was completed in 1009 C. E. In this edition it has been arranged according to the weekly synagogue Torah readings. The format has been adjusted to correspond to that adopted by the TANAKH, the new translation of the Hebrew Bible, published by the Jewish Publication Society and utilized in the present Commentary. In this text, the cantillation differs in minor details from that in the Tikkunim used by Torah readers and should not be used to prepare Torah readings for the synagogue or to “ correct” Torah readers. The Jewish Publication Society has completed this project with a full awareness of the great tradition of Jewish Bible commentary, with a profound sense of the sanctity of the biblical text and an understanding of the awe and love that our people has accorded its Bible. The voice of our new Commentary resounds with the spirit and concerns of our times— just as the Jewish spirit has always found its most sincere and heartfelt expression in its apprecia-tion of the Bible; yet it acknowledges the intrinsic value of the tools of modern scholarship in helping to establish the original sense and setting of Scripture. With all this fixed firmly in mind, the Jewish Publication Society commits its good name and its decades of pioneering in the world of English- language Jewish publishing to this Torah Commentary with the hope that it will serve as the contemporary addition to the clas-sic commentaries created by Jews during past epochs in Jewish history. Nahum M. Sarna, G E N E R A L E D I T O R Chaim Potok, L I T E R A R Y E D I T O R

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus


About Book JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus

FRONT MATTERTitle PagePatrons PageDedication PageCopyright PageAcknowledgmentsContentsIntroductionGlossaryAbbreviationsWEEKLY READINGSShemot Ch. 1:1Va-'Era' Ch. 6:2Bo' Ch. 10:1Beshallah Ch. 13:17Yitro Ch. 18:1 Mishpatim Ch. 21:1Terumah Ch. 25:1Tetsavveh Ch. 27:20Ki Tissa ' Ch. 30:11Va-Yakhel Ch. 35:1Pekudei Ch. 38: 21THE COMMENTARY TO EXODUSReversal of Fortune (1:1-22)An Introductory Summary (vv.1-7)The Oppression (vv. 8-14)The Midwives (vv. 15-22)The Birth and Youth of Moses (2:1-25)The Abandonment and Salvation of Moses (vv. 1-10)The Character of Moses (vv. 11-15)Moses in Midian (vv. 16-22)A Transitional Postscript (vv. 23-25)The Commissioning of Moses (3:1-4:17)The Theophany at the Burning Bush (vv. 1-6)The Divine Call (vv. 7-10)Moses' Dialogue with God (3:11-4:17)The Challenge of Leadership: Initial Failure (4:18-6:1)Leave-taking and Departure (vv. 18-23)The Night Encounter and Circumcision (vv. 24-26)Moses' Leadership is Accepted (vv. 27-31)The First Audience with Pharaon (5:1-6:1)Divine Reaffirmation (6:2-7:13)Moses Transmits the Divine Message (v. 9)A Renewed Call to Action (vv. 10-13)A Genealogy (vv. 14-25)A Recapitulation (vv. 26-30)Reaffirmation and Renewal of Moses' Mission (vv. 1-7)Signs before Pharaon (vv. 8-13)The Plagues (7:14-11:10)The First Plague: the Waters become Bloody (dam) (7:14-25)The Second Plague: Frogs (tsefardea') (7:26-8:11)The Third Plague: Vermin (kinnim) (vv. 12-15)The Fourth Plague ('arov) (vv. 16-28)The Fifth Plague: Prestilence (dever) (vv. 1-7)The Sixth Plague: Boils (shehin) (vv. 8-12)The Seventh Plague: Hail (barad) (vv. 13-35)The Eigth Plague: Locusts ('arbeh) (vv. 1-20)The Ninth Plague: Darkness (hoshekh) (vv. 21-29)The Announcement of the Tenth Plague (vv. 1-10)The Last Act (12:1-51)The Reform of the Calendar (v. 2)The Paschal Offering ( vv. 3-13)The Festival of Matsot (vv. 14-20)Instructions for the Pesah are Relayed (vv. 21-28)The Tenth Plague (vv. 29-36) The Exodus (vv. 37-42)Exclusionary Regulations (vv. 43-49)Commemorative Rituals (13:1-16)The Installation of the First-born (vv. 1-2)The Law of Matsot and Tefillin (vv. 3-10)The Redemption of the First-born (vv. 11-16)The Exodus (13:17-14:31)Into the Wilderness (vv. 17-22)The Miracle at the Sea (vv. 1-31)Instructions to Change Course (vv. 1-4)The Song at the Sea: Shirat ha-Yam (15:1-19)The Defeat of the Egyptians (vv. 1-10)The Incomparability of YHVH (vv. 11-13)The Impact on the Neighboring Peoples (vv. 14-16)The Grand Finale (vv. 17-18)A Coda (v. 19)The Song of Miriam (vv. 20-21)Crises in the Wilderness (15:22-17:16)The Bitter Waters at Marah (vv. 22-27)The Shortage of Food - Manna and Quail (vv. 1-20)The People are Informed (vv. 6-10)The Quail and Manna Arrive (vv. 11-20)The Law of the Sabbath (vv. 21-30)An Appendix on the Manna (vv. 31-36)Massah and Meribah (vv. 1-7)The Battle with Amalek (vv. 8-16)Jethro's Visit and the Organization of the Judiciary (18:1-27)The Arrival of Jethro (vv. 1-12)The Organization of the Judiciary (vv. 13-27)The Covenant at Sinai (19:1-20-21)Narrative Introduction (vv. 1-3)Israel's Destiny Defined (vv. 3c-6)The Popular Responce (vv. 7-8)Preparations for the Theophany (vv. 9-25)The Decalogue (vv. 1-14(17))The People's Reaction (vv. 15-18(18-21))The Regulation of Worship (vv. 19-23(22-26))The Book of the Covenant: The Laws (21:1-24:18)Judicial Rulings (21:2-22:16)Categorical Commands (22:17-23:19)The Agricultural Prescriptions (vv. 10-13)Renewal of the Divine Promises (vv. 20-33)Ratification of the Covenant (vv. 1-18)Instructions for the Tabernacle (25:1-31:18)The Materials (vv 1-9)The Ark (vv. 10-16)The Kapporet and the Cherubim (vv. 17-22)The Table and Its Appurtenances (vv. 23-30)The Menorah (vv. 31-40)The Tabernacle Coverings (vv. 1-14)The Wooden Structure (vv. 15-30)The Inner Curtain (parokhet) (vv. 31-35)The Outer Curtain (vv. 36-37)The Outer Altar of Sacrifices and Its Accessories (vv. 1-8)The Enclosure (vv. 9-19)A Summation (vv. 18-19)The Oil for Lighting (vv. 20-21)The Priesthood and the Priestly Vestments (vv. 1-43)The Vestments of Ordinary Priests (vv. 40-43)The Installation of the Priests (29:1-46)The Materials (vv. 1-3)The Washing (v. 4)The Robing and Anointing of Aaron Alone (vv. 5-7)The Robing of Aaron and His Sons (vv. 8-9)The Animal Sacrifices (vv. 10-26, 31-42)The Installation of Future Priests (vv. 27-30)The Sacrificial Meal (vv. 31-34)A Week-long Observance (vv. 35-37)The Regular Burnt Offering (vv. 38-42)A Summation (vv. 43-46)An Appendix to the Instruction (30:1-38)The Incense Altar (vv. 1-10)The Census and the Poll Tax (vv. 11-16)The Bronze Laver (vv. 17-21)The Aromatic Anointing Oil (vv. 22-33)The Ingredients of the Incense (vv. 34-38)Appointment of Construction Personnel (vv. 1-11)The Observance of the Sabbath (vv. 12-17)A Coda (v. 18)The Violation of the Covenant: The Golden Calf (32:1-33:23) The Making of a Golden Calf (vv. 1-6)God's Anger and Moses' Intercession (vv. 7-14)Moses Smashes the Tablets and Destroys the Calf (vv. 15-20)Aaron's Apologia (vv. 21-24)Selection of the Levites (vv. 25-29)Moses' Second Intercession (vv. 30-34)Withdrawal of the Divine Presence (vv. 1-6)Moses' Exceptional Status (vv. 7-11)Dialogue with God (vv. 12-23)Renewal of the Covenant (34:1-35)Preparatory Measures (vv. 1-3)God's Self-disclosure (vv. 4-9)Inauthentic and Authentic Worship (vv. 10-26)Epilogue: Moses Reaches the Pinnacle of Eminence (vv. 27-35)The Construction of the Tabernacle (35:1-40:38)The Convening of the People (35:1-19)The Work of Construction (36:8-38:20)The Making of the Priestly Vestments (vv. 1-31)Complection and Inspection (vv. 32-43)Erecting the Tabernacle (vv. 1-8)Anointing the Tabernacle and Furnishings (vv. 9-11)Installing the Priests (vv. 12-15)Fulfilling the Instructions (vv. 16-33)The Appearance of the Divine Presence (vv. 34-38)NOTES TO THE COMMENTARYEXCURSUSExcursus 1. The Hebrews 1:15Excursus 2. The Abandoned Hero Motif 2:3Excursus 3. God of the Father 3:6Excursus 4. 'El Shaddai 6:3Excursus 5. Tefillin 13:9, 16Excursus 6. Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Law (21:1-22:10)NOTES TO THE EXCURSUSESExcursus 1Excursus 2Excursus 3Excursus 4Excursus 5Excursus 6
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