JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh...

A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

Much masorah seems to have been created only after problems arose; in such cases, it could only reinforce the torn textual fabric, not mend the hole. Unable or unwilling to choose between variants, scribes sometimes preserved two versions of a word side by side—transmitting both. Furthermore, by nature the Bible is not predictable. Because of its spiritual subject matter, its choice of words must be improbable at times. So is a given puzzling phrase due to scribal error—or religious mystery? When to expect the text to follow rules of grammar—and when to allow for artistic expression? Despite these pitfalls, Bible scholars have always refined the text as they found it. Each expert begins with a different set of available manuscripts, from scribes of varying (and uncertain) reliability. They each use different methods for resolving textual problems. So the experts come to different conclusions as to what is the best Bible text. Ironically, the result is a Bible whose text continually evolves—the changes being justified to preserve the accuracy of tradition. Thus, an early printed Bible edited in Italy by R. Jacob ben H. ayyim Ibn-Adoniyah ( 1525 C. E.) reconstructed the work of the Tiberian textual tradition from six hundred years earlier. His effort was impressive enough that soon afterward, owners of old manuscripts all across Europe altered their parchments to match his newly authoritative book. As mistakes were corrected, new ones appeared. R. Meir Letteris of Austria edited a Hebrew Bible first published in 1852 C. E., based on lists of corrections by experts who perceived mistakes in earlier editions. It became the standard Hebrew text among many Jews to this day. Yet like all prior printed Bibles, it contained hundreds of its own typographical errors. Meanwhile, in the modern era, certain early medieval manuscripts— safeguarded in isolated Middle Eastern communities—were brought to the attention of Bible scholars. These have proven to be the oldest known witnesses of the now-standard Tiberian tradition. Only recently has the wider, evolutionary, corrective process taken these unusually reliable texts into account. These manuscripts still contain inconsistencies and differ slightly from each other. But on the whole, they confirm the received (evolutionary European) traditions of the Bible text, especially for the Torah. Amazingly, manuscript differences are truly minor. More than 99.9 percent of the time, the masoretic Bible’s witnesses give identical accounts. Rarely does the variation impact the meaning of a given verse. Yet even this small uncertainty can vex a publisher who—for each detail of the text—must pick one possibility over another. x

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh


About Book JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh

Front MatterTitle PageCopyright PageDedication PageContentsPreface to the 1999 Hebrew-English editionThe unbroken chain of uncertaintyThe history of our Hebrew textEditing the JPS Hebrew Bible textEditing summary for the Hebrew textPreface to the 1985 English editionOn the history of Bible translationOn the making of the new translationTORAH: The Five Books of MosesGENESISBere'shit 1.16.8Noah 6.911.32Lekh Lekha 12.117.27Va-yera' 18.122.24Hayyei Sarah 23.125.18Toledot 25.1928.9Va-yetse' 28.1032.3Va-yishlah. 32.436.43Va-yeshev 37.140.23Mikkets 41.144.17Va-yiggash 44.1847.27Va-yehi 47.2850.26EXODUSShemot 1.16.1Va-'era' 6.29.35Bo' 10.113.16Be-shallah 13.1717.16Yitro 18.120.26Mishpatim 21.124.18Terumah 25.127.19Tetsavveh 27.2030.10Ki Tissa' 30.1134.35Va-yakhel 35.138.20Pekudei 38.2140.38LEVITICUSVa-yikra' 1.15.26Tsav 6.18.36Shemini 9.111.47Tazria 12.113.59Metsora 14.115.33'Aharei Mot 16.118.30Kedoshim 19.120.27'Emor 21.124.23Be-har 25.126.2Be-hukkotai 26.327.34NUMBERSBe-midbar 1.14.20Naso' 4.217.89Be-haalotekha 8.112.16Shelah-Lekha 13.115.41Korah. 16.118.32Hukkat 19.122.1Balak 22.225.9Pinhas 25.1030.1Mattot 30.232.42Maseei 33.136.13DEUTERONOMYDevarim 1.13.22Va-'eth. annan 3.237.11Ekev 7.1211.25Re'eh 11.2616.17Shofetim 16.1821.9Ki Tetse' 21.1025.19Ki Tavo' 26.129.8Nitsavim 29.930.20Va-yelekh 31.130Ha'azinu 32.152Ve-zo't Ha-berakhah 33.134.12NEVI'IM: The ProphetsJOSHUAJUDGES1 SAMUEL2 SAMUEL1 KINGS2 KINGSISAIAHJEREMIAHEZEKIELHOSEAJOELAMOSOBADIAHJONAHMICAHNAHUMHABAKKUKZEPHANIAHAGGAIZECHARIAHMALACHIKETHUVIM: The WritingsPSALMSPROVERBSSONGRUTHLAMENTATIONSECCLESIASTESESTHERDANIELEZRANEHEMIAH1 CHRONICLES2-CHRONICLESBack MatterGUIDE TO ENGLISH FOOTNOTESGUIDE TO HEBREW FOOTNOTESTABLE OF SCRIPTURAL READINGSINDEX OF TORAH READINGS
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