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The result is called

by JPS / Varda Books
The result is called the Michigan-Claremont-Westminster (MCW) electronic BHS. It has provided JPS with a text nearly identical to the Leningrad Codex manuscript. Each round of revision has corrected previous typographic errors and misreadings while introducing a smaller number of other typos and mistakes. Its machine-readable text format has nearly precluded new typos in our own production process. Meanwhile, BHS notes have provided vital supporting documentation. To aid modern readers, its various editors have brought the codex’s outward features in line with the more familiar evolution of Bibles, by: • adding chapter and verse numbers (invented after the codex was written); • changing the order of books (putting Chronicles at the end, rather than before Psalms); • redividing Psalms to show 150 chapters rather than the codex’s 149; • adding end-of-verse punctuation where Samuel ben Jacob had omitted it; • inserting typographic markers to show the codex’s paragraphing; • placing each qere entry in the text (rather than in the margin), following its kethib, and transferring pointing to the qere consonants— which occasionally meant inferring pointing (a dagesh or maqqef ) not in the codex; • omitting the diacritical sign rafé (ubiquitous in the codex) in all but six places, which most modern Bibles have dropped as superfluous and hard to print; • turning many marginal notes on superfluous letters (yatér) into qere entries; • tripling the number of masoretic notes by filling in cross-references; and • flagging the apparent scribal errors. EDITING THE JPS HEBREW BIBLE TEXT This section details our editing approach, which is summarized by the table on page xv. Intended Audience. This is a study Bible, for readers who want to explore the meaning of the masoretic Hebrew text. Hence, our designers focused on reducing the work of reading. Our edition features clear type, xiii

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The result is called the Michigan-Claremont-Westminster (MCW) electronic BHS. It has provided JPS with a text nearly identical to the Leningrad Codex manuscript. Each round of revision has corrected previous typographic errors and misreadings while introducing a smaller number of other typos and mistakes. Its machine-readable text format has nearly precluded new typos in our own production process. Meanwhile, BHS notes have provided vital supporting documentation. To aid modern readers, its various editors have brought the codex’s outward features in line with the more familiar evolution of Bibles, by: • adding chapter and verse numbers (invented after the codex was written); • changing the order of books (putting Chronicles at the end, rather than before Psalms); • redividing Psalms to show 150 chapters rather than the codex’s 149; • adding end-of-verse punctuation where Samuel ben Jacob had omitted it; • inserting typographic markers to show the codex’s paragraphing; • placing each qere entry in the text (rather than in the margin), following its kethib, and transferring pointing to the qere consonants— which occasionally meant inferring pointing (a dagesh or maqqef ) not in the codex; • omitting the diacritical sign rafé (ubiquitous in the codex) in all but six places, which most modern Bibles have dropped as superfluous and hard to print; • turning many marginal notes on superfluous letters (yatér) into qere entries; • tripling the number of masoretic notes by filling in cross-references; and • flagging the apparent scribal errors. EDITING THE JPS HEBREW BIBLE TEXT This section details our editing approach, which is summarized by the table on page xv. Intended Audience. This is a study Bible, for readers who want to explore the meaning of the masoretic Hebrew text. Hence, our designers focused on reducing the work of reading. Our edition features clear type, xiii
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Varda Books - 1-59045-077-9


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