Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English...

Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition

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Front MatterTitle PageCopyright PageTRANSLATORS PREFACEFROM THE GERMAN PREFACENOTE TO THE FIFTEENT IMPRESSIONLIST OF ABBREVIATIONSTable of ContentsContentsINTRODUCTION§ 1. The Semitic Languages in General§ 2. Sketch of the History of the Hebrew Language§ 3. Grammatical Treatment of the Hebrew Language§ 4. Division and Arrangement of the GrammarELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OR THE SOUNDS AND CHARACTERSTHE INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS AND CHARACTERS§ 5. The Consonants: their Forms and Names§ 6. Pronunciation and Division of Consonants§ 7. The Vowels in General, Vowel Letters and Vowel Signs§ 8. The Vowel Signs in particular§ 9. Character of the several Vowels§ 10. The Half Vowels and the Syllable Divider (Sewa)§ 11. ?ther Signs which affect the Reading§ 12. Dages in general, and Dages forte in particular§ 13. Dages lene§ 14. Mappiq and Raphe§ 15. The AccentsI. The Common AccentsA. DISJUNCTIVE ACCENTS (Distinctivi or Domini)B. CONJUNCTIVE ACCENTS (Conjunctivi or Servi)II. The Accents of the Books .????A. DISTINCTIVI.B. C0NJUNCTIVIREMAKKS ON THE ACCENTS.I. As Signs of the ToneII. As Signs of Punctuation§ 16. Of Maqqeph and Metheg§ 17. Of the Qere and Kethibh. Masora rnarginalis and finalis.PECULIARITIES AND CHANGES OF LETTERS: THE SYLLABLE AND THE TONE§ 18 Changes of Speech§ 19. Changes of Consonants§ 20. The Strengthening (Sharpening) of Consonants§ 21. Aspiration of the Tenues§ 22. Peculiarities of the Gutturals.§ 23. The Feebleness of the Gutturals ? and .?§ 24. Changes of the Weak Letters§ 25 . Unchangeable Vowels§ 26. Syllable-formation and its Influence on the Quantity of Vowels§ 27. The Change of the Vowels, especially as regards Quantity§ 28. The Rise of New Vowels and Syllables§ 29. The Tone, its Changes and the PauseETYMOLOGY, OR THE PARTS OF SPEECH§ 30. Stems and Roots: Biliteral, Triliteral, and Quadriliteral§ 31. Grammatical StructureTHE PRONOUN§ 32. The Personal Pronoun. The Separate PronounI. First PersonII. Second PersonIII. Third Person§ 33. Pronominal Suffixes§ 34. The Demonstrative Pronoun§ 35. The Article§ 36. The Relative Pronoun§ 37. The Interrogative and Indefinite PronounsTHE VERB§ 38. General View§ 39. Ground-form and Derived Stems§ 40. Tenses. Moods. Flexion.§ 41. Variations from the Ordinary Form of the Strong Verb.I. The Strong VerbA. THE PURE STEM, OR QAL§ 43. Its Form and Meaning§ 44. Flexion of the Perfect of Qal§ 45. The Infinitive§ 46. The Imperative.§ 47. The Imperfect and its Inflexion§ 48. Shortening and Lengthening of the Imperfect and Imperative. The Jussive and Cohotative.§ 49. The Perfect and imperfect with Waw Consecutive§ 50. The Participle?. VERBA DERIVATIVA, OR DERIVED CONJUGATIONS§ 51. Niph'al§ 52. Pi'el and Pu'al.§ 53. Hiph'il and Hoph'al§ 54. Hithpa'el§ 55. Less Common Conjugation§ 56. QuadriliteralsC. STRONG VERB WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES§ 58. The Pronominal Suffixes of the Verb§ 59. The Perfect with Pronominal Suffixes§ 60. Imperfect with Pronominal Suffixes§ 61. Infinitive, Imperative and Participle with Pronominal Suffixes§ 62. Verbs with Gutturals§ 63. Verbs First Guttural, e. g. ??? to standI. On Qal.II. On Hiph'il and Hoph'alIII. ??? and .???§ 64. Verbs Middle Guttural, e.g. ??? to slaughter§ 65. Verbs Third Guttural, e.g. ??? to sendII. The Weak Verb.§ 66. Verbs Primae Radicalis Nun ( ??? ), e.g. ??? to approach§ 67. Verbs e. g. ??? to surroundI. On QalII. On Niph'alIII. On Hiph'il and Hoph'alIV. In General§ 68. Verbs ??? e. g. ??? to eat§ 69. Verba ??? . First Class, or Verbs originally ,?? ?e.g. ?? ) to dwell§ 70. Verbs ??? . Second Class, or Verbs properly ? ? ? ? e. g. ?? } to be good. Paradigm L.§ 71. Verbs ??? . Third Class, or Verbs with Yodh assimilated§ 72. Verbs * V (vulgo fv), e. g. ??? to rise up. Paradigm M.I. On Qal.II. On Niph'alIII. On Hiph'il, Hoph'al, and Pi'lelIV. In General§ 73. Verbs middle i (vulgo ??? ), e. g. ??? to discern. Paradigm N.§ 74. Verbs ??? , e.g. ??? to find. Paradigm O.§ 75. Verbs ??? , e. g. ??? to reveal. Paradigm P.I. On Qal.II. On Niph'al.III. On Pi'el, Po'el, Pu'al, and Hithpa'elIV. On Hiph'il and Hoph'alV. In GeneralVI. The Relation between Verbs ??? and ???§ 76. Verbs Doubly Weak§ 77. Relation of the Weak Verbs to one another.§ 78. Verba DefectivaTHE NOUN§ 79. General View.§ 80. The Indication of Gender in Nouns§ 81. Derivation of Nouns.§ 82. Primitive Nouns.§ 83. Verbal Nouns in General§ 84a. Nouns derived from the Simple StemI. Nouns with One Vowel, originally ShortII. Nouns with an original Short Vowel in both SyllablesIII. Nouns with an original Short Vowel in the First and a Long Vowel in the Second SyllableIV. Nouns with a Long Vocal in the First Syllable and originally a Short Vowel in the Second SyllableV. Nouns with a Long Vowel in each Syllable§ 84b. Formation of Nouns from the Intensive Stem.VI. Nouns with the Middle Consonant sharpenedVII. Nouns with the Third Consonant repeatedVIII. Nouns with the Second and Third Consonants repeatedIX. Nouns in which the Whole (Biliteral) Stem is repeated§ 85. Nouns with Preformatives and AfformativesX. Nouns with PreformativesXI. Nouns with AfformativesXII. Quadrilaterals and Quinqueliterals§ 86. Denominative Nouns§ 87. Of the Plural§ 88. Of the Dual§ 89. The Genitive and the Construct State.§ 90. Real and Supposed Remains of Early Case-endings§ 91. The Noun with Pronominal Suffixes§ 92. Vowel Changes in the Noun§ 93. Paradigms of Masculine NounsExplanations of the Paradigms (see pp. 264, 265).§ 94. Formation of Feminine Nouns§ 95. Paradigms of Feminine Nouns§ 96. Nouns of Peculiar Formation§ 97. Numerals, (a) Cardinal Numbers§ 98. Numerals, (b) Ordinal NumbersTHE PARTICLES§ 99. General View§ 100. Adverbs§ 101. Prepositions§ 102. Prefixed Prepositions§ 103. Prepositions with Pronominal Suffixes and in the Plural Form§ 104. Conjunctions§ 105. InterjectionsSYNTAXTHE PARTS OF SPEECHI. Syntax of the Verb.A. USE OF THE TENSES AND MOODS.§ 106. Use of the Perfect§ 107. Use of the Imperfect§ 108. Use of the Cohortative§ 109. Use of the Jussive§ 110. The Imperative§ 111. The Imperfect with Wäw Consecutive§ 112. The Perfect with Wäw ConsecutiveB. THE INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE§ 113. The Infinitive Absolute§ 114. The Infinitive Construct.§ 115. Construction of the Infinitive Construct with Subject and Object.§ 116. The ParticiplesC. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE VERB§ 117. The Direct Subordination of the Noun to the Verb as Accusative of the Object. The Double Accusative.§ 118. The Looser Subordination of the Accusative to the Verb§ 119. The Subordination of Nouns to the Verb by means of Prepositions§ 120. Verbal Ideas under the Government of a Verb. Co-ordination of Complementary Verbal Ideas.§ 121. Construction of Passive VerbsII . Syntax of the Noun§ 122. Indication of the Gender of the Noun§ 123. The Representation of Plural Ideas by Means of Collectives, and by the Repetition of Words§ 124. The Various Uses of the Plural-form§ 125. Determination of Nouns in general. Determination of Proper Names.§ 126. Determination by Means of the Article§ 127. The Noun determined by a following Determinate Genitive§ 128. The Indication of the Genitive Relation by means of the Construct State§ 129. Expression of the Genitive by Circumlocution§ 130. Wider Use cf the Construct State§ 131. Apposition§ 132. Connexion of the Substantive with the Adjective§ 133. The Comparison of Adjectives. (Periphrastic Expression of the Comparative and Superlative§ 134. Syntax of the Numerals.III. Syntax of the Pronoun.§ 135. The Personal Pronoun§ 136. The Demonstrative Pronoun§ 137. The Interrogative Pronoun§ 138. The Relative Pronoun§ 139. Expression of Pronominal Ideas by means of SubstantivesTHE SENTENCEI. The Sentence in General§ 140. Noun-clauses, Verbal-clauses, and the Compound Senten§ 141. The Noun-clause§ 142. The Verbal-clause.§ 143. The Compound Sentence.§ 144. Peculiarities in the Representation of the Subject (especially in the Verbal-clause)§ 145. Agreement between the Members of a Sentence, especially between Subject and Predicate, in respect of Gender and Number§ 146. Construction of Compound Subjects§ 147. Incomplete SentencesII. Special Kinds of Sentences.§ 148. Exclamations§ 149. Sentences which express an Oath or Asseveration§ 150. Interrogative Sentences§ 151. Desiderative Sentences§ 152. Negative Sentences§ 153. Restrictive and Intensive Clauses§ 154. Sentences connected by Wäw§ 155. Relative Clauses§ 156. Circumstantial Clauses§ 157. Object-Clauses (Oratio Obliqua)§ 158. Causal Clauses§ 159. Conditional Sentences§ 160. Concessive Clauses§ 161. Comparative Clauses§ 162. Disjunctive Sentences§ 163. Adversative and Exceptive Clauses§ 164. Temporal Clauses§ 165. Final Clauses§ 166. Consecutive Clauses§ 167. Aposiopesis, Anacoluthon, Involved Series of SentencesTHE PARADIGMS A. The Personal?. StrongC. Strong VerbD. Verbs primae gutturalis?. Verbs mediae gutturalisF. VerbsG. Verbs mediae geminatae?. Verbs G».I. Weak Verbs, .????. Weak VerbsL. Verbs properly .????. WeakN. Weak Verbs, .??0. WeakP. WeakQ. Verbs ??with Suffixes.Hiph. ??Back MatterI. INDEX OF SUBJECTII. INDEX OF HEBREW WORDS AND FORMSIII. INDEX OF PASSAGES
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