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§ 122 g- i] Indication

by E. Kautzsch
§ 122 g- i] Indication of the Gender of the Noun use of friend, teacher,  servant, neighbour, either as masculine or feminine ; in German, Gemahl1  spouse, also for fem. Gemahlin, & c). 2. Of words denoting persons נער nais, according to the formerly common g opinion, was in early times used as epicene ( see,  however, above, § 2 n). The use of the plural נערים in Jb 119  and Ru 221  in the sense of young people ( of both genders) does not, however,  prove this. In this and in similar cases ( cf. e. g. א 1 ^ ם Gn 127  and 321  ^ תהם ) the masculine as prior gender includes the feminine. 2 3. The following classes of ideas are usually regarded as feminine, 3 h although the substantives  which express them are mostly without the feminine ending: 4 ( a) Names  of countries and towns, since they are regarded as themothers5  and nurses of the inhabitants ; e. g. א# ור Assyria, אדם Idumaea, צר Tyre ; cf. also such expressions as בת ציון, בת בבל daughter of Babylon, daughter of Zion, & c. On the other hand appellatives which are originally masculine, remain so when used as place- names, e. g. Am 55  הפלנל , בית־ אל , & c. Rem. The same proper nouns, which as names of countries are regarded l as feminine, are frequently used also as names of the people, and may then, like national names in other languages, be construed as masculine ( the national name almost always being used also as the personal  name of the supposed ancestor of the people) ; thus יהודה masc. Is 38,  & c, Judaei ; but 1 So in early Arabic, bal ( lord) and laug ( conjux) are used both for maritus and uxor ;  arüs for bridegroom and bride ; the later language, however, distin-guishes the feminine from the masculine in all these cases generally by the ending a ( at). In early Arabic also the feminine ending is commonly omitted in such participles as hämil, bätin ( gravida), and the like, which from thenature of the case  can only be used of females. Thus also  אמן , at least inNu 1112 ( Is 4923?),  probably means nurse ( for 2  אמנת S 44, & c), not nursing-father. 2 The Arab  grammarians call this use of the masculine plural and dual ( e. g. el- abawani, the two fathers, i. e. parentes) taghlib or the making ( the masculine) prevail ( over the feminine).— Cf. M. Grünert,  Die Begriffs- Prapon-deranz und die Duale a potiori im Altarab., Vienna,  1886. 3 The masculine gender is attributed  by the Hebrews  and the Semites generally to whatever is dangerous, savage, courageous, respected, great, strong, powerful . . . ; the feminine to whatever is motherly, productive,sustaining, nourishing,  gentle, weak, . . . subject, & c. ( Albrecht, ZAW. 1896, p. 120 f.). 4 When, on  the other hand, words with a feminine- ending, such as כךטת a bow ( stem W) p), Τϊ) ί time ( see the Lexicon), are sometimes construed as masculine, this is owing probably in some cases to a misunderstanding of the formation of the word, the ת of the feminine being regarded as a radical. 5 Cf. a city and a mother ( אם ) in Israel, 2  S 2019. In the same way אם  ( like μήτηρ, mater) on Phoenician coins stands for mother- city,  μητρόπολις. The samefigure  is used in such expressions as sons of Zion, φ 1492  ; sons of Babylon,Ez 2315, &  c., as also in speaking of the suburbs of a city as its  daughters, e. g.Jos 1545ff.,  & c.— The comparison of Jerusalem to a woman  is especiallyfrequent  in allegorical descriptions, e. g. Ez 1623, La I1,  & c.   Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t t t t t

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§ 122 g- i] Indication of the Gender of the Noun use of friend, teacher, servant, neighbour, either as masculine or feminine ; in German, Gemahl1 spouse, also for fem. Gemahlin, & c). 2. Of words denoting persons נער nais, according to the formerly common g opinion, was in early times used as epicene ( see, however, above, § 2 n). The use of the plural נערים in Jb 119 and Ru 221 in the sense of young people ( of both genders) does not, however, prove this. In this and in similar cases ( cf. e. g. א 1 ^ ם Gn 127 and 321 ^ תהם ) the masculine as prior gender includes the feminine. 2 3. The following classes of ideas are usually regarded as feminine, 3 h although the substantives which express them are mostly without the feminine ending: 4 ( a) Names of countries and towns, since they are regarded as the mothers5 and nurses of the inhabitants ; e. g. א# ור Assyria, אדם Idumaea, צר Tyre ; cf. also such expressions as בת ציון, בת בבל daughter of Babylon, daughter of Zion, & c. On the other hand appellatives which are originally masculine, remain so when used as place- names, e. g. Am 55 הפלנל , בית־ אל , & c. Rem. The same proper nouns, which as names of countries are regarded l as feminine, are frequently used also as names of the people, and may then, like national names in other languages, be construed as masculine ( the national name almost always being used also as the personal name of the supposed ancestor of the people) ; thus יהודה masc. Is 38, & c, Judaei ; but 1 So in early Arabic, ba'l ( lord) and laug ( conjux) are used both for maritus and uxor ; ' arüs for bridegroom and bride ; the later language, however, distin-guishes the feminine from the masculine in all these cases generally by the ending a ( at). In early Arabic also the feminine ending is commonly omitted in such participles as hämil, bätin ( gravida), and the like, which from the nature of the case can only be used of females. Thus also אמן , at least in Nu 1112 ( Is 4923?), probably means nurse ( for 2 אמנת S 44, & c), not nursing-father. 2 The Arab grammarians call this use of the masculine plural and dual ( e. g. el- abawani, the two fathers, i. e. parentes) taghlib or the making ( the masculine) prevail ( over the feminine).— Cf. M. Grünert, Die Begriffs- Prapon-deranz und die Duale a potiori im Altarab., Vienna, 1886. 3 The masculine gender is attributed ' by the Hebrews and the Semites generally to whatever is dangerous, savage, courageous, respected, great, strong, powerful . . . ; the feminine to whatever is motherly, productive, sustaining, nourishing, gentle, weak, . . . subject, & c.' ( Albrecht, ZAW. 1896, p. 120 f.). 4 When, on the other hand, words with a feminine- ending, such as כךטת a bow ( stem W) p), Τϊ) ί time ( see the Lexicon), are sometimes construed as masculine, this is owing probably in some cases to a misunderstanding of the formation of the word, the ת of the feminine being regarded as a radical. 5 Cf. a city and a mother ( אם ) in Israel, 2 S 2019. In the same way אם ( like μήτηρ, mater) on Phoenician coins stands for mother- city, μητρόπολις. The same figure is used in such expressions as sons of Zion, φ 1492 ; sons of Babylon, Ez 2315, & c., as also in speaking of the suburbs of a city as its daughters, e. g. Jos 1545ff., & c.— The comparison of Jerusalem to a woman is especially frequent in allegorical descriptions, e. g. Ez 1623, La I1, & c. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t t t t t
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