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§ 32 K- M The Personal

by E. Kautzsch
§ 32 K- M The Personal Pronoun 107 אתנה ) only four times, viz. Gn 316, Ez 1311.20, 34; in 1320  אתם ( before a מ ) is even u3ed as feminine. III. Third Person. 6. ( a) In הוא and היא { hu and hi) the א ( corresponding to the , Elif of pro- k longation in Arabic, cf. § 23  i) might be regarded only as an orthographic addition closing the final long  vowel, as in נקיא  י ל וא , &  c. The א is, however, always written in the case of the separate pronouns, ן and  only as a toneless suffix ( § 33 a)  does הוא appear as הו , while היא becomes  Γ). In Arabic ( as in Syriac) they are  written הו and הי but pronounced huwa and hiyä, and in Vulgar Arabic even huwwa and hiyya. This Arabic pronunciation alone would not indeed be decisive, since the vowel complement might have arisen from the more consonantal pronunciation of the ו and י ; but the Ethiopic we, etü (= hua- tu) for הוא , yeeti (= hia- ti) for היא ( cf. also the Assyrian ya- ua for יהוא ) show that the א was original and indicated an original vocalic termi-nation of the two words. According to Philippi { ZDMG. xxviii. 172 and xxix. 371 ff.) הוא arose from a primitive Semitic ha- τα, היא from ha- ya. ( b) The form  הוא also stands in the consonantal text ( Ke thibth) of the /Pentateuch 2 ( with  the exception of eleven places) for the fern. היא . In all such cases the  Masora, by the punctuation הוא , has indicated the Qere היא ( Q* re perpetuum, see §  17). The old explanation regarded this phenomenon as an archaism which was  incorrectly removed by the Masoretes. This assumption is, however,  clearly untenable, if we consider ( 1) that no other Semitic language is without the quite indispensable distinction of gender in the separate pronoun of the 3rd pers.; ( 2) that this distinction does occur eleven times in the Pentateuch, and that in Gn 205, 3825, Nu 513.14  הוא and היא are found close to one another ; ( 3) that outside the Pentateuch the  distinc-tion is found in the oldest documents, so that the היא cannot be regarded as having been subsequently adopted from the Aramaic ; ( 4) that those parts of the book of Joshua  which certainly formed a constituent part of the original sources of the Pentateuch,  know nothing of this epicene use of . הוא Consequently there only  remains the hypothesis, that the writing of הוא for היא rests on an orthographical peculiarity which in some recension of the Pentateuch- text was almost consistently followed, but was afterwards very properly rejected by the Masoretes. The orthography was, however, peculiar to the Pentateuch- text alone, since it is unnecessary to follow the Masora in writing היא for הוא in 1 Κ 1715, Is 3033, Jb 3111,  or הוא for היא in ψ 7316, Ec 58, ι Ch 2916.  The Samaritan recension of the  Pentateuch has the correct form in the Kethibh  throughout. Levys explanation of this strange practice of the Masoretes is evidently right, viz. that originally הא was written for both forms ( see ί*,  note), and was almost everywhere, irrespective of gender, expanded into הוא  . On the whole question see Driver, Leviticus ( in Haupts Bible), p. 25 f. In the text Driver always reads . הא 7. The plural forms המה) הם ) and הנה ( after prefixes הן , הן ) are of doubt- ΉΙ ful origin, but המה , הם have probably been assimilated to הנה which goes back to a form hinnd. In Western Aram. אפון , הנק) המו , המ^ ן ), Syr. henün 1 In the inscription of King Me § a ( see § 2 d),  lines 6 and 27, we find הא for הוא , and in the inscription of ESmunazar,  line 2 2, for היא , but in  the Zenjirli inscriptions ( see § 1 m)  both הא and הו occur ( Hadad i, 1. 29). 2 Also in twelve places in the Babylonian Codex ( Prophets) of 916 A. D. ; cf. Baer, Ezechiel, p. 108 f.; Buhl, Canon and Text of the 0. T. ( Edinb. 1892),  p. 240. Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t t

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§ 32 K- M The Personal Pronoun 107 אתנה ) only four times, viz. Gn 316, Ez 1311.20, 34\\"; in 1320 אתם ( before a מ ) is even u3ed as feminine. III. Third Person. 6. ( a) In הוא and היא { hu and hi) the א ( corresponding to the , Elif of pro- k longation in Arabic, cf. § 23 i) might be regarded only as an orthographic addition closing the final long vowel, as in נקיא י ל וא , & c. The א is, however, always written in the case of the separate pronouns, ן and only as a toneless suffix ( § 33 a) does הוא appear as הו , while היא becomes Γ). In Arabic ( as in Syriac) they are written הו and הי but pronounced huwa and hiyä, and in Vulgar Arabic even huwwa and hiyya. This Arabic pronunciation alone would not indeed be decisive, since the vowel complement might have arisen from the more consonantal pronunciation of the ו and י ; but the Ethiopic we, etü (= hu'a- tu) for הוא , ye'eti (= hi'a- ti) for היא ( cf. also the Assyrian ya- ua for יהוא ) show that the א was original and indicated an original vocalic termi-nation of the two words. According to Philippi { ZDMG. xxviii. 172 and xxix. 371 ff.) הוא arose from a primitive Semitic ha- τα, היא from ha- ya. ( b) The form הוא also stands in the consonantal text ( Ke thibth) of the / Pentateuch 2 ( with the exception of eleven places) for the fern. היא . In all such cases the Masora, by the punctuation הוא , has indicated the Qere היא ( Q* re perpetuum, see § 17). The old explanation regarded this phenomenon as an archaism which was incorrectly removed by the Masoretes. This assumption is, however, clearly untenable, if we consider ( 1) that no other Semitic language is without the quite indispensable distinction of gender in the separate pronoun of the 3rd pers.; ( 2) that this distinction does occur eleven times in the Pentateuch, and that in Gn 205, 3825, Nu 513.14 הוא and היא are found close to one another ; ( 3) that outside the Pentateuch the distinc-tion is found in the oldest documents, so that the היא cannot be regarded as having been subsequently adopted from the Aramaic ; ( 4) that those parts of the book of Joshua which certainly formed a constituent part of the original sources of the Pentateuch, know nothing of this epicene use of . הוא Consequently there only remains the hypothesis, that the writing of הוא for היא rests on an orthographical peculiarity which in some recension of the Pentateuch- text was almost consistently followed, but was afterwards very properly rejected by the Masoretes. The orthography was, however, peculiar to the Pentateuch- text alone, since it is unnecessary to follow the Masora in writing היא for הוא in 1 Κ 1715, Is 3033, Jb 3111, or הוא for היא in ψ 7316, Ec 58, ι Ch 2916. The Samaritan recension of the Pentateuch has the correct form in the Kethibh throughout. Levy's explanation of this strange practice of the Masoretes is evidently right, viz. that originally הא was written for both forms ( see ί*, note), and was almost everywhere, irrespective of gender, expanded into הוא . On the whole question see Driver, Leviticus ( in Haupt's Bible), p. 25 f. In the text Driver always reads . הא 7. The plural forms המה) הם ) and הנה ( after prefixes הן , הן ) are of doubt- ΉΙ ful origin, but המה , הם have probably been assimilated to הנה which goes back to a form hinnd. In Western Aram. אפון , הנק) המו , המ^ ן ), Syr. henün 1 In the inscription of King Me § a' ( see § 2 d), lines 6 and 27, we find הא for הוא , and in the inscription of ' ESmun'azar, line 2 2, for היא , but in the Zenjirli inscriptions ( see § 1 m) both הא and הו occur ( Hadad i, 1. 29). 2 Also in twelve places in the Babylonian Codex ( Prophets) of 916 A. D. ; cf. Baer, Ezechiel, p. 108 f.; Buhl, Canon and Text of the 0. T. ( Edinb. 1892), p. 240. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t t
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