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§ 23 9- k] The Feebleness

by E. Kautzsch
§ 23 9- k] The Feebleness of the Gutturals א andι Κ 525  ( for אנ״ £) the strengthening of the following consonant by Dages compensates for the loss of the א ; in מסרת Ez 2037,  if for מאס״ ( but read מוסר , with Cornill), the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf.above, c.  On אסור for אאמר , see § 68 g. Rem. ι. In Aramaic the א is much weaker and more liable to change than g in Hebrew. In literary Arabic, on the other hand, it is almost always a firm consonant. According to Arabic orthography, א serves also to indicate a long a, whereas in Hebrew it  very rarely occurs as a mere vowel  letter after Qames ;  as in יןאם Hoi ο1 4  for יןם he rose up ; ראש Pr ίο4, 1323  for רש poor  ; but in 2 S 11l  the KHhxbh המלאכים the messengers, is the  true reading;  cf. § 7 b. 2. In some cases at the beginning of a word, the א , instead of a compound  11 Sewa, takes the corresponding full vowel, e. g. אןור  girdle for אז!* ד ; cf. § 84  a, q, and the analogous cases in § 52 η, § 6$ ρ, § 76 d, § 93 r  ( .( אהלים 3 · An א is sometimes  added at the end of the word to a finalύ , ί, or δ, e. g. I הלביא for הלם Jos 1024( before  אבוא ,(! א Is 2812.  These examples, however, are not so much instances  of i Arabic orthography,  as early scribal errors, as in ינשוא Jer io5  for ינלאו ; and in נשוא ψ 13920 for  נשאו . Cf. also יהואEc 113  ( § 75 s)  ; נקיא for נקי pure;  לוא for לו if; אפוא for אפו then ( enclitic) ; רבוא for רבו myriad, Neh 766•  71. On הוא and היא see § 32  k. 4. The ה is stronger and firmer than the א , and never  loses its A* consonantal sound ( i. e. quiesces) in the middle of a word1  except in the cases noted below, in which it is completely elided by syncope. On the other hand, at the end of a word it is always a mere vowel letter, unless expressly marked by Mappiq as a strong consonant ( § 14 a).  Yet at times the consonantal sound of • י at the end of a word is lost, and its place is taken by a simple ה or more correctly , ה with Raphe as an indication of its non- consonantal character, e. g. לה to her for • לי , Zc 5*  11, & c. ( cf. § 103 g,  and § § 58 g, 91  e); cf. also יה for • יי ( from יהי ) in proper names like יי  JOT, & c.— Finally,  in very many cases a complete elision of the consonantal ה takes place by syncope: ( a) when its vowel is thrown back to the place of a preceding Sewd mobile ( see above,  c, with א ), e. g. לבקר for להבכןר ( the ה of the article being syncopated as  it almost always is) ; כיום for כהיום [ but see § 35 n],  בשמים for ןונתן; ב ה# מים for ן הונתן ; perhaps also בניהם for בנהיהםEz 2 732.  ( b) By contraction of the vowels preceding and following theה , e. g. סוסו  ( also written סוסה ) from susahu ( a + u= 6).— A violent suppression of ה together with its vowel occurs in בם ( from בהם ), & c. 1 Only apparent exceptions are such proper names as פרהצור , עשיהאל , which are compounded of two words and hence are sometimes even divided. Cf. forms like חןאל for חזהאל . Another exception is יפהפיה , the reading of many MSS. for the artificially divided form יפידפ^ ח in the printedtexts, Jer 4620.   Chapter Home | TOC  | Index t

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§ 23 9- k] The Feebleness of the Gutturals א and ι Κ 525 ( for אנ״ £) the strengthening of the following consonant by Dages compensates for the loss of the א ; in מסרת Ez 2037, if for מאס״ ( but read מוסר , with Cornill), the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf. above, c. On אסור for אאמר , see § 68 g. Rem. ι. In Aramaic the א is much weaker and more liable to change than g in Hebrew. In literary Arabic, on the other hand, it is almost always a firm consonant. According to Arabic orthography, א serves also to indicate a long a, whereas in Hebrew it very rarely occurs as a mere vowel letter after Qames ; as in יןאם Hoi ο1 4 for יןם he rose up ; ראש Pr ίο4, 1323 for רש poor ; but in 2 S 11l the KHh'xbh המלאכים the messengers, is the true reading; cf. § 7 b. 2. In some cases at the beginning of a word, the א , instead of a compound 11 Sewa, takes the corresponding full vowel, e. g. אןור girdle for אז!* ד ; cf. § 84 a, q, and the analogous cases in § 52 η, § 6$ ρ, § 76 d, § 93 r ( .( אהלים 3 · An א is sometimes added at the end of the word to a finalύ , ί, or δ, e. g. I הלביא for הלם Jos 1024( before אבוא ,(! א Is 2812. These examples, however, are not so much instances of i Arabic orthography', as early scribal errors, as in ינשוא Jer io5 for ינלאו ; and in נשוא ψ 13920 for נשאו . Cf. also יהוא Ec 113 ( § 75 s) ; נקיא for נקי pure; לוא for לו if; אפוא for אפו then ( enclitic) ; רבוא for רבו myriad, Neh 766• 71. On הוא and היא see § 32 k. 4. The ה is stronger and firmer than the א , and never loses its A* consonantal sound ( i. e. quiesces) in the middle of a word1 except in the cases noted below, in which it is completely elided by syncope. On the other hand, at the end of a word it is always a mere vowel letter, unless expressly marked by Mappiq as a strong consonant ( § 14 a). Yet at times the consonantal sound of • י at the end of a word is lost, and its place is taken by a simple ה or more correctly , ה with Raphe as an indication of its non- consonantal character, e. g. לה to her for • לי , Zc 5* 11, & c. ( cf. § 103 g, and § § 58 g, 91 e); cf. also יה for • יי ( from יהי ) in proper names like יי JOT, & c.— Finally, in very many cases a complete elision of the consonantal ה takes place by syncope: ( a) when its vowel is thrown back to the place of a preceding Sewd mobile ( see above, c, with א ), e. g. לבקר for להבכןר ( the ה of the article being syncopated as it almost always is) ; כיום for כהיום [ but see § 35 n], בשמים for ןונתן; ב ה# מים for ן הונתן ; perhaps also בניהם for בנהיהם Ez 2 732. ( b) By contraction of the vowels preceding and following the ה , e. g. סוסו ( also written סוסה ) from susahu ( a + u= 6).— A violent suppression of ה together with its vowel occurs in בם ( from בהם ), & c. 1 Only apparent exceptions are such proper names as פרהצור , עשיהאל , which are compounded of two words and hence are sometimes even divided. Cf. forms like חןאל for חזהאל . Another exception is יפהפיה , the reading of many MSS. for the artificially divided form יפידפ^ ח in the printed texts, Jer 4620. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t
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