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χ PREFACE But the theory here set forth marks a new departure not only in its treatment of the Chronicler, but still more in the point of view from which it estimates the later writings and writers of the Old Testament. It is customary to measure them, one and all, by the Chroniclers  Ezra, and their words are everywhere given an interpretation to correspond. It would be much fairer to take as the standard the Second Isaiah, the prophets and teachers of the restoration period, and those who wrote the best part of the Psalter, giving their utterances the broad interpreta-tion which I have indicated, and to which they are fully entitled. These were philosophers and poets who in their conception of God and man surpassed all the other sages of the ancient world, one of their number, moreover, being incomparably the profound-est thinker and most eloquent writer in all the Old Testament; men busied with the greatest concerns of human life, not with the petty interests attributed to them by our commentators. The seed sown by their predecessors of the Hebrew monarchy did not die, nor did the plant which sprung from it dwindle and grow sickly, while the Jews remained in their land; it prospered mightily and brought forth abundantly.- Jesus of Nazareth was the true child of his people, the best fruit of a sublime religious growth which in modern times has been sadly misunderstood. The story of the religion of Israel, from Deuteronomy down to the time of the Roman rule, is not a story of deterioration, but one of advance. Moreover, Judaism grew up in Judea, it was not transplanted from foreign soil. The fact of the Dispersion, as is here shown for the first time, exercised a tremendous influence all through the Persian period and thereafter, and its main effect on the Jews of the home- land was broadening and salutary. The messianic and universal interpretation of the Second Isaiah which is found in the Gospels is the only correct one. To put the whole matter in a few words: both the history of Israel after the fall of the kingdom, and the exegesis of the literature of that period, which have been written during the past generation have been built on a false foundation derived from the Chroniclers work, and need to be completely revised. To give the first sketch of such a historical reconstruction is the chief purpose of the present volume, and especially of the last chapter, which attempts to use impartially for that purpose all the trustworthy evidence which we possess.

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Front Matter Half Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Page Preface Table of Contents Contents I: PORTIONS OF FIRST ESDRAS AND NEHEMIAH IN THE SYRO-HEXAPLAR VERSION FROM THE HEXAPLAR NEHEMIAH (MS. Brit. Mus. Add. 12,168) II: THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF FIRST ESDRAS I. THE TWO RECENSIONS OF THE EZRA HISTORYII. PAST AND PRESENT THEORIES REGARDING THE APOCRYPHAL BOOK III. THE NATURE OF FIRST ESDRASIV. THE ORIGIN OF OUR TWO RECENSIONS1. General probability 2. The evidence from Josephus III: THE STORY OF THE THREE YOUTHS I. ORIGIN OF THE STORYII. TRANSLATIONIII. THE INTERPOLATOR'S ADDITIONSIV: THE APPARATUS FOR THE TEXTUAL CRITICISM OF CHRONICLES-EZRA-NEHEMIAH I. NATURE OF THE TEXT-CRITICAL PROBLEMII. THEODOTION THE AUTHOR OF OUR CANONICAL GREEK VERSION OF CHRONICLES-EZRA-NEHEMIAH III. THE TWO MAIN TYPES OF THE TEXT1. First Esdras2. The Standard Text of the Second Century A.D. IV. NOTES ON MANUSCRIPTS AND VERSIONS1. The Superiority of the A Manuscripts to those of the ? Group2. Hexaplar MSS of Chron.-Ezr.-Neh.3. The Versions Made from Origen's Septuagint 4. The Two Main Branches of the Greek Tradition5. The Syrian Tradition, the Lucian Recension, and our L Text V. THE CRITICAL PROCESS IN RESTORING THE SEMITIC TEXT V: THE FIRST CHAPTER OF EZRA IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM AND SETTING THE CHRONICLER'S NARRATIVE OF THE RETURN FROM THE EXILE TRANSLATION NOTE A (on II Chron. 36:21)NOTE ? (on Ezr. 1:8)NOTE C (on Ezr. 1:9 ff.)VI: THE ARAMAIC PORTIONS OF EZRA I. THE CHARACTER OF THE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS IN EZRA1. The Prevailing View2. A Literary Habit of Ancient Narrators3. The Tendency of the Documents II. THE CHRONICLER'S PART IN THE ARAMAIC PORTIONSIII. THE ARAMAIC OF THE BOOK OF EZRAIV. PROPER NAMES AND FOREIGN WORDS1. Proper Names2. The Foreign WordsV. THE HISTORY OF THE TEXT OF 4:6-11VI. THE TEXT OF THE PASSAGESSAMARITAN INTRIGUES AGAINST THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE (Ezr. 4:46:19) EZRA'S CREDENTIALS (Ezr. 7:11-28)TRANSLATIONVII: THE CHRONICLER AS EDITOR AND AS INDEPENDENT NARRATOR I. THE CHRONICLER'S MAIN PURPOSEII. THE CHRONICLER AS EDITOR1. In the Books of Chronicles2. In Ezra-NehemiahIII. THE CHRONICLER AS INDEPENDENT NARRATOR1. The Sources, Real and Imaginary, in I and II Chron2. The Chronicler's Characteristics as a Narrator3. The Ezra Memoirs 4. The Chronicler's Narrative of NehemiahVIII: THE EZRA STORY IN ITS ORIGINAL SEQUENCETHE ACCOUNT OF THE EXPEDITION (Ezr. 8:136; Neh. 7:7073a)THE READING OF THE LAW (Neh. 7:73b8:18)THE EXPULSION OF THE GENTILE WIVES (Ezr. 9:110:44)THE COVENANT AGAINST GENTILE MARRIAGES AND IN SUPPORT OF THE CLERGY (Neh. 9:110:40)NOTE A (on Ezr. 10:44)NOTE ? (on Neh. 9:4 f.)NOTE C (the lacuna in Neh. 9:5)NOTE D (on Neh. 10:1 f.)IX: THE EXILE AND THE RESTORATIONI. PREVAILING MISCONCEPTIONSII. THE DEPORTATION TO BABYLONIAIII. THE BEGINNING OF THE HEBREW DISPERSIONIV. THE REVIVING OF JERUSALEMV. THE RENEWAL OF THE WORSHIP 1. Untrustworthy Narratives2. Conditions at the Time of Haggai and ZechariahVI. GENERAL SUMMARY, 586 TO 444 B. C.VII. THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTVIII. JEWISH TEMPLES OF THE DISPERSIONIX. THE HIGH PRIESTS OF THE SECOND TEMPLEX. THE RIVALRY WITH THE SAMARITANSXI. THE DATE OF NEHEMIAHBack Matter CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDAINDICESI. MATTERS AND NAMES II. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICALIII. PASSAGES INCIDENTALLY DISCUSSEDLeviticusDeuteronomyJoshuaJudgesI SamuelII Samu 1I KingsII KingsIsaiahJeremiahAmosMicah.HaggaiZechariahMalachiPsalmsEstherDanielEzraNehemiahNehemiahI ChroniclesII ChroniclesTohitI MaccabeesII MaccabeesEcclesiasticusEnoch
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