Europe's Century of Discontent: The...

With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

PREFACE vii PREFACE This volume is based on papers delivered at an international conference “ Reflections on Europe’s Century of Discontent: Confronting the Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism,” held at the Institute for European Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on 10– 12 March 2002. The impetus for the conference were our feelings that with the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern and Central Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could possibly be viewed in a new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism after World War II were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed and appeared to have come out strengthened, surviving the travails of the war and even extending its boundaries with the imposition of Soviet- style rule on the countries of Eastern Europe, only recently liberated from Nazi German occupation and indigenous forms of Fascism. The comparison between right- wing defeated totalitarian regimes and the still existing – and apparently flourishing – Soviet system was premised on a built- in asymmetry. After 1989, it was felt that a new, less oblique perspective became possible for the first time. With this in mind, our aim was to address a number of issues both on the level of theory and as well as historical experience. Given these possible new research horizons, we asked the conference participants to take another look at the conventional theories of totalitarianism and try to distil from them those insights which have withstood the shifting paradigms developed in the study of totalitarianism over the last decades. We were also aware of the fact that the classical models of totalitarianism have been developed by scholars who managed to flee either from Nazism or Communism, and consequently have not themselves lived under these regimes, nor have they undertaken systematic studies of them as they have existed in reality: Popper, Arendt, Talmon, Friedrich and ( to a lesser extent) Brzezinski, have mainly developed their paradigms as political theorists, not social scientists.   C h a p t e r Home  | T O C

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism


About Book Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism

Front matterTitle PageCopyrightContentsPrefacePart One. THE THEORETICAL DIMENSIONFROM COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT TO THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE 20TH CENTURYTHE CONCEPT OF TYRANNYTHE DECAY OF THE NATION STATE AND PEOPLEÌS SOVEREIGNTY: THE ORIGINS OF TOTALITARIANISM REVISITEDPart Two. IDEOLOGY AND POLITICAL DYNAMICSTAKING FASCISM SERIOUSLYThe Disappearance of FascismThe Originality of Fascism: The Old QuestionsNew QuestionsTaking Fascism Seriously÷TodayNAZISM, COMMUNISM AND THE MORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE INEFFABILITY OF MEMORYRHETORICS OF HIERARCHY: ON LINGUISTIC AND IDEOLOGICAL PREMISES OF TOTALITARIAN FASCISMTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCIST REGIMES: ELITES, SINGLE PARTIES AND POLITICAL DECISION- MAKING IN FASCIST ERA DICTATORSHIPSPower and Political Decision-Making During SalazarismMussolini and Italian FascismHitler and German National SocialismConclusions: Where is Fascism as a Political Regime?Part Three. THEORY AND REALITYSLOGANS RATHER THAN CONVERSATIONTOTALITARIAN REGIMESIntroduction1. The Evolution of the Concept of Totalitarian Regimes: A Critical Review2. A Typology of Political Regimes3. Types of Totalitarian Regimes4. The Stability of Totalitarian Regimes5. Totalitarian Regimes of the Twentieth CenturyReferencesPart Four. THE COMPARATIVE DIMENSIONTHE PROBLEM OF THE PARTY IN A POLICE STATE : NAZI AND SOVIET COMPARISONSThe Place of the PartyThe Politics of Mass ParticipationConclusionsIDEOLOGY AND CONTINGENCY IN TOTALITARIANISMÌS VIOLENCE: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH OF NAZISM, COMMUNISM, FASCISM TOTALITARIANISM : FROM AN INSTRUMENTAL TERM IN THE PUBLIC DEBATE TO AN ANALYTICAL CATEGORY – THE INTERWAR DEBATE IN FRANCEThe Comparison Between Fascism and Communism: Natural Weapon of the CentristsA Refutation of ExtremismToward the Creation of an Academic CategoryPart Five. AFTERMATH AND LEGACIESEQUALITY OF VICTIMS – EQUALITY OF REGIMES?THE AMBIVALENT LEGACY OF FASCISM IN ITALYANTI-EXTREMISM, NEGATIVE REPUBLICANISM, CIVIC SOCIETY: THREE PARADIGMS FOR BANNING POLITICAL PARTIESIntroductionI. Anti-extremismII. Negative RepublicanismIII. Civic Society: Towards a New Abstraction?IV. ConclusionIN LIEU OF AN EPILOGUE: IDEOLOGY AND REALITY IN NAZISM AND COMMUNISMLIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
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