Europe's Century of Discontent: The...

With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

FROM COUNTER- ENLIGHTENMENT TO REVOLUTIONS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 9 alternative to capitalism and private property. The laws of economics made it impossible to suppose that the idea of profit could be eliminated. 11 Thus, one sees that the essence of the two types of revolution, l’idée mère as Tocqueville would have said, was completely different. The difference resides in the inner rationale of the two revolutions, or, to speak like Montesquieu and Max Weber, in what is typical of them. On the one hand, there were the revolutionaries who had remained true to the classical concept of a revolution that would change the world by changing society and its economic structures. These revolutionaries were faithful to the idea of a universal revolution, which even if it was not the inevitable outcome of modernization as Marx had thought, was a revolution in favor of the proletariat that spoke on behalf of the whole of suffering humanity. Leninism was not a rebellion against the humanist content of the Enlightenment but wanted to be the concretization of it. And on the other hand, there were revolutionaries who also wished to change the world, not by destroying the bourgeois class- society based on the market economy and private property, but by eradicating the rationalist political culture based on the principles of 1789, that culture of the Enlightenment which brought materialist decadence. Their revolution would be produced by the nation with all its classes together, the nation conceived as a body, Herder’s nation, which would carry out a cultural and spiritual revolution. In this, Fascism was truly an invention of genius. Its founders considered the Russian Revolution a disaster, absolute madness. This great difference between the nature of the two types of revolution also explains the difference both between the ways they were carried out and between the régimes which resulted from them. The Soviet revolution could only have been accomplished through the expropriation of the former dominant classes; the Fascist revolution and the Nazi revolution did not endanger the prevailing social order and they were brought to power by the existing élites, including some of the greatest names in intellectual life. Of course, everyone knows that the Fascists, like the Nazis, detested landed proprietors, squires with monocles, bankers and money- grubbers, cavalry officers and dignitaries of the Church, and they would have liked to replace the traditional social élites with a new 11 See Zeev Sternhell, Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri, The Birth of Fascist Ideology: From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995, Introduction and Chapter Three.   C h a p t e r Home  | T O C

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism


About Book Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism

Front matterTitle PageCopyrightContentsPrefacePart One. THE THEORETICAL DIMENSIONFROM COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT TO THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE 20TH CENTURYTHE CONCEPT OF TYRANNYTHE DECAY OF THE NATION STATE AND PEOPLEĚS SOVEREIGNTY: THE ORIGINS OF TOTALITARIANISM REVISITEDPart Two. IDEOLOGY AND POLITICAL DYNAMICSTAKING FASCISM SERIOUSLYThe Disappearance of FascismThe Originality of Fascism: The Old QuestionsNew QuestionsTaking Fascism Seriously÷TodayNAZISM, COMMUNISM AND THE MORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE INEFFABILITY OF MEMORYRHETORICS OF HIERARCHY: ON LINGUISTIC AND IDEOLOGICAL PREMISES OF TOTALITARIAN FASCISMTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCIST REGIMES: ELITES, SINGLE PARTIES AND POLITICAL DECISION- MAKING IN FASCIST ERA DICTATORSHIPSPower and Political Decision-Making During SalazarismMussolini and Italian FascismHitler and German National SocialismConclusions: Where is Fascism as a Political Regime?Part Three. THEORY AND REALITYSLOGANS RATHER THAN CONVERSATIONTOTALITARIAN REGIMESIntroduction1. The Evolution of the Concept of Totalitarian Regimes: A Critical Review2. A Typology of Political Regimes3. Types of Totalitarian Regimes4. The Stability of Totalitarian Regimes5. Totalitarian Regimes of the Twentieth CenturyReferencesPart Four. THE COMPARATIVE DIMENSIONTHE PROBLEM OF THE PARTY IN A POLICE STATE : NAZI AND SOVIET COMPARISONSThe Place of the PartyThe Politics of Mass ParticipationConclusionsIDEOLOGY AND CONTINGENCY IN TOTALITARIANISMĚS VIOLENCE: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH OF NAZISM, COMMUNISM, FASCISM TOTALITARIANISM : FROM AN INSTRUMENTAL TERM IN THE PUBLIC DEBATE TO AN ANALYTICAL CATEGORY – THE INTERWAR DEBATE IN FRANCEThe Comparison Between Fascism and Communism: Natural Weapon of the CentristsA Refutation of ExtremismToward the Creation of an Academic CategoryPart Five. AFTERMATH AND LEGACIESEQUALITY OF VICTIMS – EQUALITY OF REGIMES?THE AMBIVALENT LEGACY OF FASCISM IN ITALYANTI-EXTREMISM, NEGATIVE REPUBLICANISM, CIVIC SOCIETY: THREE PARADIGMS FOR BANNING POLITICAL PARTIESIntroductionI. Anti-extremismII. Negative RepublicanismIII. Civic Society: Towards a New Abstraction?IV. ConclusionIN LIEU OF AN EPILOGUE: IDEOLOGY AND REALITY IN NAZISM AND COMMUNISMLIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
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